Appendix A7, Intangible Costs and Benefits, of Transit New Zealand's Project Evaluation Manual (1991 edition) is reviewed. The review makes suggestions on: additional intangibles which should be included; modifications to intangibles already recognised in the PEM; methods by which the intangibles could be measured or quantified; and further research to assist the quantification of the intangibles to be used in Appendix A7.
The study reviewed available information on overseas practices and recent environmental impact studies on roading projects in New Zealand. Consultation with a group of users and non-users of the Project Evaluation Manual was also undertaken.
Recommendations are made on methods of objective quantification of intangible factors for eventual incorporation into the Porject Evaluation Manual, as well as about the methodologies that may require further research and refinement.
Intangible factors considered important for inclusion or modification are: visual impact (which includes visual obstruction, visual intrusion, view from the road, view of the road), special areas, effects on water, ecology, pshychological stress, overshadowing. Other intangible factors that may have potential for inclusion in Appendix A7 are: exposure to wind, litter, security, urban blight, pedestrian and cyclist intimidation, use of road reserve for public utilities, effects on soil ,effects of road alignments, adherence to global, national or regional environmental goals.