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This section sets out the Land Transport Benefits Framework, and links to more detail about each element.

Read an introduction to the benefits framework for background and key concepts 

Navigating through the benefits framework

You can begin with the top level of the framework, the transport outcomes, and drill down through to the benefit clusters and benefits, or you can use the table below.

The five transport outcomes are: 

Benefits framework table

Download a pdf table of the Land Transport Benefits Framework [PDF, 984 KB]


  • Measures marked # are quantitative, and those marked * are qualitative. For more information see Non-monetised benefits manual: qualitative and quantitative measures
    Monetised costs and benefits manual

Healthy and safe people

Healthy and safe people 

Benefit cluster Benefit Measure

1. Changes in user safety

1.1 Impact on social cost of deaths and serious injuries$

1.1.1 Collective risk (crash density)#

1.1.2 Crashes by severity#

1.1.3 Deaths and serious injuries#

1.1.4 Personal risk (crash rate)#

1.2 Impact on a safe system

1.2.1 Road assessment rating – roads#

1.2.2 Road assessment rating – state highways#

1.2.3 Travel speed gap#

2. Changes in perceptions of safety

2.1 Impact on perceptions of safety and security

2.1.1 Access – perception#

3. Changes in human health

3.1 Impact of mode on physical and mental health$

3.1.1 Physical health benefits from active modes*

3.2 Impact of air emissions on health$

3.2.1 Ambient air quality – NO2#

3.2.2 Ambient air quality – PM10#

3.3 Impact of noise and vibration on health$

3.3.1 Noise level#

Resilience and security

Resilience and security 

Benefit cluster Benefit Measure

4. Changes in impact of unplanned disruptive events on access to social and economic opportunities

4.1 Impact on system vulnerabilities and redundancies

4.1.1 Availability of a viable alternative to high-risk and high-impact route#

4.1.2 Level of service and risk*

Economic prosperity

Economic prosperity


Benefit cluster Benefit Measure

5. Changes in transport costs

5.1 Impact on system reliability$

5.1.1 Punctuality – public transport#

5.1.2 Travel time reliability – motor vehicles#

5.1.3 Travel time delay#

5.1.4 Temporal availability – road#

5.2 Impact on network productivity and utilisation$

5.2.1 Spatial coverage – freight#

5.2.2 Freight – mode share value#

5.2.3 Freight – mode share weight#

5.2.4 Freight – throughput value#

5.2.5 Freight – throughput weight#

5.2.6 Access to key economic destinations (all modes)#

6. Wider economic impact

6.1 Wider economic benefit (productivity)$


6.2 Wider economic benefit (employment impact)$


6.3 Wider economic benefit (imperfect competition)$


6.4 Wider economic benefit (regional economic development)$


Environmental sustainability

Environmental sustainability

Benefit cluster Benefit Measure

7. Changes in natural environment

7.1 Impact on water

7.1.1 Water quality*

7.2 Impact on land and biodiversity

7.2.1 Biodiversity*

7.2.2 Productive land*

8. Changes in climate

8.1 Impact on greenhouse gas emissions$

8.1.1 CO2 emissions#

8.1.2 Mode shift from single occupancy private vehicle*

9. Changes in resource efficiency

9.1 Impact on resource efficiency

9.1.1 Resource efficiency*

9.1.2 Embodied carbon*

9.1.3 Energy*

Inclusive access

Inclusive access

Benefit cluster Benefit Measure

10. Changes in access to social and economic opportunities

10.1 Impact on user experience of the transport system$

10.1.1 People – throughput of pedestrians, cyclists and public transport boardings#

(Repeat) 2.1.1 Access – perception#

10.1.2 Pedestrian delay#

10.1.3 Ease of getting on/off public transport services#

10.1.4 Network condition – cycling#

10.1.5 Network condition – road#

10.1.6 People – throughput#

10.1.7 People – throughput (Urban Cycleways Programme)#

10.1.8 Traffic – throughput#

10.1.9 Travel time#

10.2 Impact on mode choice

10.2.1 People – mode share#

(Repeat) 8.1.2 Mode shift from single occupancy private vehicle*

10.2.2 Accessibility – public transport facilities#

10.2.3 Spatial coverage – cycle lanes & paths#

10.2.4 Spatial coverage – cycling facilities#

10.2.5 Spatial coverage – public transport – employees#

10.2.6 Spatial coverage – public transport – resident population#

10.2.6a Spatial coverage – public transport – new residential dwellings#

10.2.7 Temporal availability – public transport#

10.2.8 Cost of access to key destinations – all modes*

10.2.9 Pricing – more efficient*

10.2.10 Traffic – mode share (number)#

10.2.10b Traffic – mode share (distance)#

10.3 Impact on access to opportunities

10.3.1 Access to key social destinations (all modes)#

10.4 Impact on community cohesion

10.4.1 Social connectedness*

10.4.2 Isolation*

10.4.3 Severance*

11. Changes in liveability of places


11.1 Impact on heritage and cultural values

11.1.1 Amenity value – natural and built environment*

11.1.2 Heritage and cultural values*

11.2 Impact on landscape

11.2.1 Landscape*

11.3 Impact on townscape

11.3.1 Townscape*

12. Changes in te ao Māori values

12.1 Impact on te ao Māori

12.1.1 Te ao Māori*

Further information