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This benefit is primarily about rural settings, but can be relevant to some urban settings with the same characteristics as a rural area. Landscape means more than just a physical tract of land or a view or scene. Landscape can be explained as a reflection of the relationship between people and place. It is both the characteristics and perceptions of the land that give a ‘sense of place’ to people living in it or visiting it. The characteristics can be physical or cultural, and can be unique to a place or can contribute to local distinctiveness and community perception of value. In this way, it overlaps somewhat with benefit 11.1 Impact on heritage and cultural value.

11.1 Impact on heritage and cultural value

The New Zealand Institute of Landscape Architects (NZILA) has described landscape as consisting of biophysical elements, patterns and processes; associative meanings, including spiritual, cultural or social associations; and sensory or perceptual qualities. Landscape is therefore a culmination of natural and cultural features and is focused on the functioning of a geographical area, while also taking into account human perceptions and associations. 

On the biophysical side, this benefit may overlap with the benefits in cluster 7. Changes in natural environment.

7. Changes in natural environment

Investments and programmes that may contribute to this benefit include those that directly impact the preservation of the natural character of the landscape or outstanding natural features. It may also be relevant for those investments that consider landscape enhancements, such as developing green infrastructure or protecting view shafts, or impact on people’s connection with nature and place, and other investments that impact on landscape as a co-benefit.

This benefit can impact on anyone who appreciates landscape values, whether in person or remotely, and can have an intergenerational impact.

While landscape characteristics and the way they are perceived may gradually change over time, any immediate impact of land transport related infrastructure or programmes on the characteristics and perceptions of landscape is included in this benefit. The qualitative measure of landscape focuses on the landscape features – pattern, tranquillity, cultural and historic, landcover and summary of character.

Measure

11.2.1 Landscape*

Measures marked * are qualitative.

For more information about this measure see Non-monetised benefits manual: qualitative and quantitative measures.

Non-monetised benefits manual: qualitative and quantitative measures

 

> Return to the overview of the Land Transport Benefits Framework