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Research Report 180 Cycle audit and cycle review: a scoping study

Published: | Category: Safety, security and public health , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

This study was an investigation to see whether the process of cycle audit and cycle review developed by the Institution of Highways and Transportation in the United Kingdom should be introduced in New Zealand. The researchers interviewed traffic engineers and planners, road safety coordinators and cycle officers in nine local authorities, as well as cycle advocates, regional authority staff and Transit New Zealand staff. The results include: information on the safety audit processes currently used, how cyclists are considered in the design process, whether cycling is encouraged, whether cyclist safety is provided for, and whether road controlling authorities would be likely to use the process of cycle audit and cycle review. Information on how the process is being used in Britain is included. The study identifies the gaps in providing for cycling in the current design processes and makes recommendations for improvements.

Research Report 244 Road surfaces & loss of skid resistance caused by frost and thin ice in New Zealand

Published: | Category: Safety, security and public health , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

The effects of frost and ice on the skid resistance of a range of road surface types used in New Zealand were examined in a laboratory-based study, carried out in 2001-02. Frost and ice were formed on samples in controlled climate test rooms. In addition the same range of road samples was exposed to natural frost. Road surface types tested included dense and open-graded asphalts, and both fine and coarse textured chipseals. Comparisons were made with actual roads in frost conditions. Fine textured road surfaces were found to be very vulnerable to loss of skid resistance in frost and ice conditions. Coarse textured surfaces appeared to retain more of their skid resistance in frost and ice although the increase in skid resistance is small. The implications for road management are examined.

Research Report 310 The safety benefits of brighter roadmarkings

Published: | Category: Safety, security and public health , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

Since about 1997 the brightness of roadmarkings on a number of New Zealand state highways has been increased. This study was undertaken to determine whether an increase in safety, as measured by reduced crashes, could be associated with the use of these brighter roadmarkings. Keywords: curve, delineation, edgeline, edgemarker, ratio, reflectivity, regions, retroreflectivity, roadmarking, road safety, statistical analysis, straight, visibility

Research report 505 Economic evaluation of the impact of safe speeds: literature review

Published: | Category: Safety, security and public health , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

The Safe System approach to road safety implies the goal of removing fatal and serious injury crashes from our road network. This review addresses:

alternative ways of classifying roads in relation to speed, across the road network, compatible with the Safe System approach
how speed relates to crashes, fuel consumption and emissions
the values currently placed on the costs of serious and fatal crashes, travel time and fuel savings in the developed world
how on a macroscopic scale these values can be translated into greenhouse gas emissions savings
how these values relate in the cost–benefit analysis context under a Safe System approach to speed. Well attested relationships were found between speed and crashes. Safe System road types related to the maximum speeds above which serious or fatal injury would occur in various types of crashes. Internationally, valuation of crashes is mainly based on willingness-to-pay criteria.

Research Report 621 Regulations and safety for electric bicycles and other low-powered vehicles

Published: | Category: Safety, security and public health , Research programme , Research & reports | Audiences: General, Motorists, Walkers & cyclists

This research report presents a review of overseas legislation, technology trends, market and safety analyses for low-powered, low-speed vehicles. These vehicles include electric bicycles, mobility scooters, self-balancing devices and other personal mobility or wheeled recreational devices. Current New Zealand LPV legislation is based only on motor power and how certain LPVs may be used. In all other countries reviewed, top motor-assisted speed is regulated. The report assesses various regulatory and non-regulatory options for improving safety while supporting technological innovation and mode choice options in New Zealand.

Research Report 437 Next generation of rural roads crash prediction models pilot study

Published: | Category: Safety, security and public health , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

The majority of fatal and serious crashes in New Zealand occur on rural two-lane roads. Data on historic crash patterns is not always sufficient to enable a suitable diagnosis of the safety deficiencies of various sections of this rural road network. It also cannot readily identify safety issues on low-volume roads and shorter sections of highway, where the relative scarcity of crashes may mask the considerable potential for safety improvements. This pilot study covers the second stage of a three-stage research project that aims to quantify the impact of all key road features on the safety of two-lane rural roads. This stage of the study involved the collection of road alignment, roadside environment, traffic flow, and crash data for 200 sections of rural road, each one 400m long, throughout the Waikato region of New Zealand.

Research Report 323 Curve speed management

Published: | Category: Safety, security and public health , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

Horizontal curves have been recognised as a significant safety issue for many years, a more important factor than road width, vertical clearance or sight distance. This study investigates the issue of speed selection through curves from several different perspectives. The relationship between safety and curve speed in New Zealand was analysed using data from the Ministry of Transport’s Crash Analysis System (CAS) database. A sample of curves was selected and surveyed. Following this, a method for determining the appropriate safe curve speed for different vehicles was developed based on the vehicle performance characteristics. In parallel, a driving simulator was used to investigate the effect of different warning sign and road marking treatments on drivers’ curve speed selection and lateral positioning.

Research Report 039 System-wide road accident analysis

Published: | Category: Safety, security and public health , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

A comparison of the road accident rates between five cities in New Zealand was undertaken between 1989 and 1991. Accident data from these cities were coded onto validated road networks prepared for transportation studies. Accident rates have been calculated using accident data and modelled traffic volumes, and significant differences in accident rates are apparent. To determine the correlation between traffic volume and accident rate within the road classes and intersection types, detailed regression analyses were applied to the five cities. The analyses were also used to identify outliers (locations with significantly higher or lower accident rates than usual) and thus identify accident 'black spots'. They can be used to estimate costs of accidents for inclusion in economic evaluation of projects, to ensure that proposals to change a traffic or road system, or to employ an accident reduction measure, will be the most economically effective.

Research Report 389 Cycle safety: reducing the crash risk

Published: | Category: Safety, security and public health , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

Cycling is a sustainable mode of travel and an alternative to motor vehicle trips, particularly for shorter trips. However, the risk of crashing while cycling is typically higher than while travelling in a motor vehicle. To create a safer environment for cyclists, traffic engineers and transport planners can select a number of safety countermeasures. These include changes to the road layout, such as reducing traffic volumes and speeds; installing cycling lanes and paths; and conducting enforcement and education programmes focused on drivers and cyclists. The crash benefits to cyclists of reducing traffic volumes and speeds, and constructing cycle lanes and intersection treatments have been investigated during 2006 and quantified based on overseas research and data collected within Christchurch, Palmerston North and Nelson. It was found that cycle lane facilities provided a reduction in cycle crashes of around 10%.

Research Report 079 Road environment and traffic crashes

Published: | Category: Safety, security and public health , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

This report presents a road geometry survey of the New Zealand highway system and the subsequent use of the data to model the relationship between highway features and relative crash risk. The Australian Road Research Board's RGDAS (Road Geometry Data Acquisition System) survey vehicle was used in 1992, to survey the geometry of all of New Zealand's highways (excluding unsealed sections) totalling some 22,000 km. A database was constructed containing the survey data. This data was used together with data from Transit New Zealand's Road Asset Maintenance Management (RAMM) database and the Land Transport Safety Authority's Traffic Accident Report (TAR) database to develop a statistical model relating relative crash risk to road geometry. An attempt was made to investigate the effect of shape correction operations upon crash risk, although results were inconclusive due to the small number of crashes. Keywords: Crash risk, geometry, highway, models, RAMM, RGDAS, road, TAR
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