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Research Report 639 Technology related transport skill requirements and availability

Published: | Category: Transport demand management , Research programme , Research & reports | Audiences: General, Land developers

This paper reports an assessment of skills gaps and training needs likely in 2035 for New Zealand, resulting from the technological change from implementation of intelligent transport systems (ITS) in land transport. The research reported was funded by the New Zealand Transport Agency and conducted in 2017 in Wellington, New Zealand. The economics and engineering literature provides important insights into the impact of technological change on skills demanded and the consequences for occupations and training. Accordingly, to develop the skills gap assessment, we first developed scenarios of future ITS environments in New Zealand in 2035. This was informed by global literature on ITS technologies and their likely implementation by 2035. Paramount among these technologies were autonomous vehicles, where their level of autonomy and coverage of the national vehicle fleet by 2035, is a useful metric of the overall level of ITS development.

Research Report 627 Data standards for the NZ transport network

Published: | Category: Transport demand management , Research programme , Research & reports | Audiences: General, Road traffic engineers & consultants

As transport network operations become more and more time critical the requirement for knowledge of the performance and state of the network becomes more significant for decision support. Sensor technology is advancing quickly, particularly with respect to the ‘Internet of Things’, and there are significant amounts of data and information generated by a number of internal and external sources that relate to transport network and require processing. An inherent embedded component of the data sources is information about the transport networks themselves. Typically, this spatial attribute is developed to meet the specific needs of an application leading to diverse representations of the same transport network. There is a lack of transport specific data analysis platforms that are resilient to change, are lightweight and cost efficient to maintain.

Research Report 616 Assessing the value of public transport as a network

Published: | Category: Transport demand management , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

The development of a comprehensive mechanism for measuring the value of public transport is important to gain a greater understanding of existing networks and plan optimal future networks. Mechanisms for measuring the value of public transport in New Zealand are currently limited and generally only consider financial aspects. Peak services on high-frequency corridors with high patronage generally operate with high efficiency, while other services such as evening or feeder services typically have low fare box recovery, and low perceived efficiency but are likely to contribute to higher passenger numbers elsewhere across the network and in doing so add value to the network as a whole. This research explored the elements that influence the value of a public transport service and developed a framework that extends the NZ Transport Agency’s economic evaluation procedures to consider the contribution of isolated services to the wider network value.

Research Report 565 Pricing strategies for public transport

Published: | Category: Transport demand management , Research programme , Research & reports

The study looked at the trade-off between price and quality for bus and train users in Auckland, Christchurch and Wellington. After reviewing the literature, a survey of 12,557 bus and rail passengers on over 1,000 bus and train services was undertaken in 2012/13 using a stated preference (SP) and a rating questionnaire. The SP questionnaire presented a set of pair-wise choices.  The rating questionnaire enabled valued vehicle and stop/station quality to be valued on a percentage scale from 0% (very poor) to very good (100%). The vehicle ratings were compared with ‘objective’ data such as bus age; the rail station ratings were compared with objective such as ‘years since last refurbishment’; and the bus stop ratings were compared with perceived data on facility provision such as seating.

Research Report 584 Considering a cost-benefit analysis framework for intelligent transport systems

Published: | Category: Transport demand management , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

The purpose of this research was to consider a cost–benefit analysis framework for public policy development that takes account of the potentially distinctive costs and benefits of intelligent transport systems (ITS) projects. Since ITS projects involve new technology it is likely that some of the benefits are not identified and quantified by the current New Zealand transport project evaluation procedures contained in the Economic evaluation manual (EEM). The objective of this research was therefore to explore the full range of common ITS project benefits and assess if they can be evaluated using the existing EEM procedures. Keywords: benefits, costs, economics, incident detection, intelligent transport systems, real-time passenger information systems, route guidance.

Research Report 581 The role public transport can play in Safer Journeys and, in particular, to advance the Safe System approach

Published: | Category: Transport demand management , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

The key objectives of this research were to identify the contribution that urban public transport (PT), which is generally considered safer than travel by light motor vehicles, can make to the Safe System approach, and to develop an implementation plan for the insertion of PT as a safe mode into the Safer Journeys framework and action plans. The work indicated that, as in New Zealand, the practice overseas was for road safety strategists not to attempt to influence modal split in the direction of safer PT modes, but rather to accept the levels of modal split resulting from government PT policies and then to ensure that the system which results is managed according to Safe System principles. This would mean including in Safer Journeys PT-related injuries not at present covered in Safer Journeys actions.

Research Report 569 Public transport and the next generation

Published: | Category: Transport demand management , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

There is an increased use of public transport among Generation Y compared with previous generations, but there is limited information on the specific factors related to this trend and whether demand is temporary, sustained, or growing. A multi-method approach was undertaken to better understand travel demand for Generation Y with:

an analysis of New Zealand datasets to examine historical travel behaviour trends
in-depth qualitative focus groups to better understand some of the drivers, barriers, and key life stages where travel changes are likely to occur
a national quantitative survey of 1,191 travellers to identify predicted future use of public transport and the prioritisation of targeted service improvements to better inform policy direction and investment strategies.  
Findings indicate there will be large, sustained growth in public (and active) transport use, particularly among Generation Y.

Research Report 561 - Benefits and delivery risks for bus infrastructure schemes

Published: | Category: Transport demand management , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

This research evaluates existing policy and planning practices, both in New Zealand and overseas, and identifies a framework for appraising and evaluating the benefits and costs of bus-based infrastructure (bus stops and shelters, bus interchanges and bus priority) and the risks to successful project delivery. It suggests a combination of multi-criteria analysis and cost-benefit analysis can provide local authorities with useful tools for assessing proposed projects. At the heart of this appraisal method is the appraisal summary table (AST), which gives a summarised overview of the expected benefits, costs and risks relating to a project. The AST provides procedures suitable for both ex-ante and ex-post evaluation, and integrates risk management considerations into project appraisal from the outset. The proposed framework would usefully inform future revisions of the Economic evaluation manual and Guidelines for public transport infrastructure and facilities.

Research Report 557 Getting more from our roads: an evaluation of special vehicle lanes on urban arterials

Published: | Category: Transport demand management , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: Road traffic engineers & consultants

With increasing demand for travel and limited opportunities for increasing capacity within urban areas there is increasing pressure to make more effective use of the capacity available. One approach is the introduction of special vehicle lanes where particular classes of traffic, typically buses and high occupancy vehicles are permitted to use the lane. Vehicles eligible to use special vehicle lanes typically represent only a limited part of the total traffic flow, resulting in lower and more reliable travel times for those vehicles. However, where existing road space is reallocated, other traffic may face increased congestion as the capacity available for this is reduced. Users may respond by changing their behaviour to take advantage of improved travel conditions in the special vehicle lane.

Research Report 548 Literature review of the costs and benefits of traveller information projects

Published: | Category: Transport demand management , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

The NZ Transport Agency selected URS NZ Ltd to conduct a literature review in 2013 to find available cost and benefit information for traveller information systems (TIS) and associated products. The outcome of this literature review will be used as reference material for current traveller information projects and as the basis for future New Zealand TIS projects. This study aims to begin to fill the knowledge gap in the field of TIS and provide detailed information on the costs and benefits associated with the use of TIS. TIS have been accredited with providing various direct and indirect benefits to the end user during day-to-day journeys and on key transport routes during the pre-trip and en route travel stages. The claim is that TIS increases travel efficiency by better utilising the existing transportation network.
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