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Displaying Page 4 of 116

Research Report 181 Riprap protection of bridge abutments

Published: | Category: Activity management , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

Criteria for selecting riprap to protect bridge abutments against scour were investigated. Experiments were conducted with a spill-through abutment under both clear-water and live bed conditions in a laboratory flume. The riprap size and apron size and extent were varied. The data were compiled graphically, with dimensionless variables representing riprap size and apron extent on the axes. A useful relationship was found, with a clear zone of partial failure. Keywords: bridge scour, riprap, protection, hydraulic modelling, abutment, live bed, mobile bed, riprap apron

Research Report 244 Road surfaces & loss of skid resistance caused by frost and thin ice in New Zealand

Published: | Category: Safety, security and public health , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

The effects of frost and ice on the skid resistance of a range of road surface types used in New Zealand were examined in a laboratory-based study, carried out in 2001-02. Frost and ice were formed on samples in controlled climate test rooms. In addition the same range of road samples was exposed to natural frost. Road surface types tested included dense and open-graded asphalts, and both fine and coarse textured chipseals. Comparisons were made with actual roads in frost conditions. Fine textured road surfaces were found to be very vulnerable to loss of skid resistance in frost and ice conditions. Coarse textured surfaces appeared to retain more of their skid resistance in frost and ice although the increase in skid resistance is small. The implications for road management are examined.

Research Report 245 Assessment of rural road simulation modelling tools

Published: | Category: Integrated land use and transport systems , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

This research investigated the relative merits of various simulation packages (in particular TRARR, TWOPAS and PARAMICS) for modelling vehicle interactions on rural highways. It assessed their suitability for use as tools for evaluating crash risk and travel efficiency, particularly in the prediction of vehicle speeds and bunching in typical highway situations.  All were found to have some strengths over the others for particular project applications. A review was also made of recent or developing models of rural crash risks (including IHSDM) and their potential application in New Zealand considered. Although the underlying methodologies appear promising, most would requre further adaptation for the New Zealand environment. Keywords: rural highways, two-lane, simulation, safety, TRARR, TWOPAS, PARAMICS, IHSDM, New Zealand

Research Report 018 Land transport pricing for New Zealand

Published: | Category: Transport demand management , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

As part of the management of the land transport system of New Zealand, a study of land transport pricing policies, with particular emphasis on road pricing, has been carried out. The study comprised a review of relevant literature and the development of a proposed land transport pricing research programme for New Zealand. The report of this study consists of three parts:

a description of the current structure and pricing of land transport infrastructure in New Zealand
a review of the literature on land transport pricing to identify the principles underlying transport pricing policies and current and proposed policies from other countries, and
the identification of a proposed land transport pricing research programme for New Zealand.

Research Report 310 The safety benefits of brighter roadmarkings

Published: | Category: Safety, security and public health , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

Since about 1997 the brightness of roadmarkings on a number of New Zealand state highways has been increased. This study was undertaken to determine whether an increase in safety, as measured by reduced crashes, could be associated with the use of these brighter roadmarkings. Keywords: curve, delineation, edgeline, edgemarker, ratio, reflectivity, regions, retroreflectivity, roadmarking, road safety, statistical analysis, straight, visibility

Research Report 242 Harmonising automated rut depth measurements

Published: | Category: Activity management , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

A computer simulation study was conducted to investigate the viability of harmonising rut depth measurements from different automated rut depth measurement profilometers. A computer program was written which allowed for a standard reference transverse profile to be analysed by any number of profilometer sensors and spacings. The software generated a variety of rut depth statistics. The software was used to investigate the effect of the number of sensors on the predicted rut depth. It was found that the accuracy of the rut depth was proportional to the number of sensors and that this sampling effect results in an underestimation of 2–4 mm for the profilometers used in NZ. The pseudo-rut model was found to be inappropriate for predicting rut depth. It did not prove possible to test the wire model due to the shape of the reference profiles.

Research Report 375 Applying health impact assessment to land transport planning

Published: | Category: Sustainable land transport , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

This research draws on learning from New Zealand and other countries to meet the following research objectives:

to assess the need for health impact assessment (HIA), in the context of the New Zealand Transport Strategy and relevant legislation
to evaluate the role of HIA in land transport planning to date in New Zealand and explore barriers to the use of HIA
to understand the best point(s) for application of HIA within the New Zealand transport sector
to produce recommendations for better integration of HIA with other development processes in the transport context. Three data collection components were undertaken between September 2008 and January 2009:

an international literature review
a descriptive review of transport planning processes in New Zealand
four case studies examining application of HIA transport in New Zealand. Findings indicate deficiencies in current assessment processes and a need for HIA.

Research Report 243 An integrated traffic model for Auckland cities

Published: | Category: Transport demand management , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

This study carried out in 1999–2002, attempted to demonstrate and quantify benefits of an integrated approach to traffic signalisation and management of urban street networks that straddle boundaries of Transit New Zealand and Local Authority jurisdictions. A methodology based on two traffic simulation computer models, TRANSYT11 and AIMSUN2, was tested. Salient aspects of the methodology are discussed and relevant issues identified. The methodology was applied to an assessment of the performance of a street network in the Auckland region (Manukau City), New Zealand. The analysis predicted potential improvements were achievable when one of the traffic management improvement techniques was used.  However, because of the large number and complexity of developmental issues, and the incompatibility of the two programs, the methodology was assessed as unsuitable as a practical tool for local road controlling authorities. Keywords: AIMSUN2, modelling, New Zealand, road, safety, traffic, traffic control, traffic models, TRANSYT11, VISSIM, VISUM

Research Report 311 Energy risk to activity systems as a function of urban form

Published: | Category: Sustainable land transport , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

This project aimed to develop analytical methods for assessing energy risks due to a peak and decline in global oil production. Additionally to develop modelling capabilities to link these analyses to urban form. The aim was to provide a new capability for long term development planning. The need for communication between members of the community, councillors and practitioners with diverse backgrounds and interests are realised. Thus, the goal in modelling was to provide accurate risk assessment and clear visual-based communication of results. Keywords: energy, urban form, transport policy, modelling.

Research Report 309 Trials of the use of recycled hot mix and ground tyre rubber in hot mix asphalt

Published: | Category: Environmental impacts of land transport , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

This research, carried out in 2003–2004, aimed to facilitate the recycling of asphalt mix, recycled asphalt pavement (RAP), and crumb rubber (CR) from waste tyres into New Zealand roads. The objectives were to allow for the revision of the appropriate specifications to encourage recycling of these materials and to use field trials to prove the performance of recycled and crumb rubber modified mixes in practice. Keywords: asphalt mix, crumbed rubber, hot mix, recycled asphalt, recycled rubber, roads, trials
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