In urban areas with relatively low population densities and high car ownership, as in New Zealand, 'park and ride' (P+R) is a potentially powerful urban transport policy tool. It is being adopted in cities worldwide (including UK, Europe, and Australia) as a major component of urban transport policies to restrain road traffic and to encourage public transport use.
This report describes a project, carried out in 1998, to develop guidelines and criteria to assist in the planning and demand estimation for P+R policies and facilities in New Zealand's major urban centres. It will have direct applications in urban transport policy development and planning studies, including modelling and evaluation aspects.
P+R attempts to combine the benefits of both car use and public transport use into an efficient and effective system and to transfer parking demand from the central business district (CBD) to suburban/urban fringe locations.
International experience with P+R is reviewed. Attempts are made to identify the necessary and desirable characteristics, and the conditions, for such projects to be effective. P+R is presently operational in Auckland and Wellington, and these programmes are reviewed.
Planning criteria and guidelines for P+R facilities for use in the main urban centres in New Zealand are set out, in tabular form to allow easy transfer into a policy and planning manual, and for use now by practitioners. The stages for developing and operating a P+R programme are shown for each of nine stages, with separate tables providing further criteria and guidelines for each separate activity.
Keywords: New Zealand, parking, policy, public transport, roads, traffic, transport, urban, urban transport