The report provides a literature review and research plan describing where further research is needed to quantify or value external effects, otherwise known as externalities, from the land transport system. It examines the efficiency and effectiveness of economic and regulatory instruments and mechanisms for internalising transport-related costs. The report examines how the prnciples of sustainable management apply to the land transport system under the Resource Management Act 1991.
The project was broken down into four main tasks and include 1. a preliminary identification of external effects, 2. a comprehensive literature review of actual and proposed approaches used to quantify or value externalities and the types of non-market instruments and mechanisms that are being used in New Zealand, 3. an assessment of legal duties and statutory constraints relevant to valuing, pricing or regulating externalities and 4. provision of a recommended research plan suggesting where further research is required to internalising transport-related costs.
Keywords: Charging, environment, environmental effects, externalities, interference, intrusion, land transport, land use, non-market valuation, pollution, transport, transport pricing, transportation impacts, urban