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Research Report 327 Transport impact guidelines for sites development

Published: | Category: Sustainable land transport , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

This research project develops best practice guidelines for carrying out transport impact assessments (TIA) of development proposals in New Zealand. International research was undertaken during 2005 and 2006 by Beca Infrastructure Limited. There is a significant variation in the content of TIAs for developments around New Zealand, which in many cases have not fully taken into account the passing of key national legislation, including the Resource Management Act 1991 and the Land Transport Management Act 2003. The guideline serves two main purposes:

a guide for those carrying out TIAs that identifies the scope and content of assessments according to development location, type and size
a guide for those reviewing such assessments to determine that the content is appropriate to the size, location and type of development being assessed. A process has been identified from notifying council of the proposal through to completion of the TIA, if required.

Research Report 198 Comparison of accelerated pavement test facilities in New Zealand and Australia

Published: | Category: Activity management , CAPTIF , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

This report presents the findings from a review of the operation and completed projects conducted at the Canterbury Accelerated Pavement Testing Indoor Facility (CAPTIF) and the Australian Accelerated Loading Facility (ALF). A test was undertaken at CAPTIF in 1999, where a granular material was imported from Australia and tested under CAPTIF loading. The material had been previously tested by ALF. The results from this test show that the performance of the material was similiar under loading by both devices, allowing for differences in the testing environments. The strengths and weaknesses of both facilities are compared and the possibilities for collaboration and technology transfer between the two facilities are explored. Keywords: accelerated pavement testing, pavement, granular materials evaluations

Research Report 199 Methods for determining structural number of New Zealand pavements

Published: | Category: Activity management , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

The structural number (SN) of a road pavement is a method for describing the strength of a road pavement, in pavement deterioration models that are currently being calibrated for New Zealand road conditions. To assist in the development of these models in New Zealand, and in implementing them in pavement design software, an investigation was carried out between 1999–2000, into the sensitivity and precision of the methods of obtaining the Structural Number. The methods used are either direct, by CBR or modulus measurements of each layer in a pavement, or indirect, generally based on deflections of the entire pavement. Correlating direct against indirect methods, and the limitations of the correlations, are discussed. Spatial variability of SN on typical pavements in New Zealand, the number of tests required to characterise SNP to different levels of precision, and predicting SNP for subgrades from volcanic materials were investigated.

Research Report 328 Park and ride: characteristics and demand forecasting

Published: | Category: Transport demand management , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

This report examines the characteristics of park and ride (P&R) useage and suggests demand modelling methodologies based on these characteristics for changes in demand at existing sites, and estimation of demand at new sites. It reviews New Zealand and international evidence on the nature of P&R usage and the factors that influence it. The report then examines potential P&R modelling methodologies and identifies the most appropriate within a New Zealand context. Emphasis is given to the development of P&R catchments and resulting regional and site-specific modelling approaches. Finally methodologies are applied to a New Zealand situation and conclusions drawn.

Research Report 262 Employer travel plans in New Zealand

Published: | Category: Integrated land use and transport systems , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

A research project was undertaken in 2001–2003 to investigate the application of employer travel plans in New Zealand. The project's focus was the identification of the most appropriate travel plan method that could be used by New Zealand organisations, and its likely impact on travel modes for the journey to work. Case study employer travel plans were facilitated at two New Zealand organisations as part of this project. The research project involved three main components:

a review of international practice and experience with employer travel plans
facilitation of case study employer travel plans at the Auckland Central branch of the New Zealand Police, and the Civic Offices of the Christchurch City Council
assessment of the results of the employer travel plan case studies. The case studies demonstrated that the standard employer travel plan process can be applied in the New Zealand context.

Research report 392 The implications of discount rate reductions on transport investments and sustainable transport futures

Published: | Category: Sustainable land transport , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

The effects of reducing the discount rate used in evaluations of initiatives funded from the National Land Transport Fund (NLTF) were assessed during 2007–09. Over 160 projects across a range of project types were collated and the relative effects of different discount rates were documented. As lower discount rates are applied, the demands on the budget become greater, and every dollar in the budget becomes more valuable. Thus any project that releases an extra dollar of cost is valued more than any project that produces an extra dollar of benefit. A lower discount rate would probably be most favourable to initiatives that reduce the total cost of maintaining and operating the network, and are favourable to major long-lasting infrastructure investments. Initiatives with large future operating and maintenance costs decrease in relative priority.

Research Report 457 Determination of personal exposure to traffic pollution while travelling by different modes

Published: | Category: Environmental impacts of land transport , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

This purpose of this project is to assess the comparative risk associated with exposure to traffic pollution when travelling via different transport modes in New Zealand cities. Concentrations of the key traffic-related pollutants (particulate matter: (PM): PM10, PM2. 5, PM1; ultrafine particles (UFPs) and carbon monoxide (CO)) were simultaneously monitored on pre-defined routes in Auckland and Christchurch during the morning and evening commute on people travelling by car, bus, on-road bike, train (Auckland only) and off-road bike (Christchurch only) from February to May 2009. The key results of this research are:

• Car drivers are consistently exposed to the highest average levels of CO. • On-road cyclists are exposed to higher levels of CO, PM1 and UFPs than off-road cyclists. • Car drivers and bus passengers are exposed to higher average levels of UFP than cyclists.

Research Report 078 Seismic testing and behaviour of a 1936-designed reinforced-concrete bridge

Published: | Category: Natural hazard risk management , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

The laboratory testing and inelastic computer analysis are described for a 1936-designed bridge which is typical of many of the older, reinforced-concrete, multi-span bridges in New Zealand. The structure has plain-round (undeformed) reinforcing bars and anchorage details, shear strength, and column-transverse reinforcement that are potentially deficient. Despite the suspected seismic deficiencies, the testing and analysis of the bridge show that its seismic performance will be good. The results indicate that (a) seismic retrofitting for the subject bridge is not warranted, (b) code criteria applicable to the design of new structures, with deformed reinforcing, can be overly conservative when used for the assessment of existing structures, and (c) plain-round reinforcing bars under seismic forces suffer extensive bond deterioration resulting in pinched hysteretic response which, for earthquakes with strong pulses, can lead to greater seismic damage.

Research Report 132 Environmental management for roading contractors: III. Provisional guidelines for environmental management during road works

Published: | Category: Environmental impacts of land transport , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

This project was undertaken in 1997–98 to prepare two sets of provisional environmental guidelines for roading contractors carrying out road works in New Zealand. Objectives of the project were to:

provide specific and simple policies and guidelines about the environmental effects of road works, particularly those related to construction, and aimed for use by roading contractors
assist roading contractors to understand the environment within which they work, and 
improve the environmental image of roading contractors. The results of the project are presented as three reports:

Section I - Overview and case study 
Section II - Provisional guidelines for erosion and sediment management during road works
Section III - Provisional guidelines for environmental management during road works (on this page). This first report consists of an overview and a case study with an associated environmental effects assessment used to develop the guidelines.

Research Report 393 Relative costs and benefits of modal transport solutions

Published: | Category: Environmental impacts of land transport , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

This report describes the outcomes of a study commissioned by the NZ Transport Agency to inform local authorities about the costs and benefits of transport modes. The aim of the study has been to provide general advice on the relative cost and benefits of alternatives with a focus on passenger transport in urban areas. The report looks at issues decision makers face in estimating costs, and sets out an approach to providing estimates. This approach provides parameter values such as cost per vehicle kilometre, which can then be applied to the number of vehicles and the distance they travel, so readers may tailor comparisons to their own situation. This quantitative exercise is supplemented by contextual discussion of some important issues in urban transport including drivers of the transport mix, the relationship between land use and transport planning, and road space and traffic management.