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Research Report 018 Land transport pricing for New Zealand

Published: | Category: Transport demand management , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

As part of the management of the land transport system of New Zealand, a study of land transport pricing policies, with particular emphasis on road pricing, has been carried out. The study comprised a review of relevant literature and the development of a proposed land transport pricing research programme for New Zealand. The report of this study consists of three parts:

a description of the current structure and pricing of land transport infrastructure in New Zealand
a review of the literature on land transport pricing to identify the principles underlying transport pricing policies and current and proposed policies from other countries, and
the identification of a proposed land transport pricing research programme for New Zealand.

Research Report 020 Land transport pricing: digest report

Published: | Category: Transport demand management , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

This digest summarises the findings of two reports prepared as part of Transit New Zealand's transport pricing study, excluding recommendations for further research which are the subject of another document. These reports surveyed the international literature on transport pricing, considering the justification and available mechanisms for charges to cover road wear and maintenance, congestion, accidents, and various environmental effects. Keywords: Charging, congestion, costs, environmental effects, externalities, land transport, pricing, roads, road users

Research Report 015 Electromagnetic loops in roads for vehicle detection

Published: | Category: Integrated land use and transport systems , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

Experimental and theoretical studies of the properties and performance of electromagnetic loops and feeder lines used in road vehicle detections systems were carried out to determine causes of erratic behaviour of loops, and to improve their performance. Basic concepts and terminology of loops are introduced and the effects of objects in their proximity are studied. The magnetic flux density distributions near rectangular and quadrupole loops are analysed, assuming the loops to be in free space or away from other objects that may affect their magnetic fields. Magnetic flux density distribution for a quadrupole is compared with published measured spatial sensitivity for the same type of loop. The comparison indicates a strong correlation between spatial sensitivity of a loop, defined as the relative change in loop inductance caused by an object's presence, and its magnetic flux density distribution.

Research Report 016 Economic disbenefits of dust from unsealed roads

Published: | Category: Environmental impacts of land transport , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

Potential economic disbenefits of dust emission from unsealed roads impact on crop production, animal food supply and health, accident potential, property values and maintenance costs, vehicle operating costs and personal health. A literature survey concentrating on overseas literature has found that very little information of a quantified nature is available. Moreover, transferring the results of some of the work on dust generation carried out in developing countries is difficult because if differences in climate and road materials. By including some New Zealand studies, it was concluded that the most significant potential disbenefits from dust emissions arise from a reduction in crop yield and possibly [an increase] to vehicle operating costs. Keywords: Accidents, agriculture, clothing, communities, dust, economic disbenefits, environment, health, horticulture, housing, insurance, land values, palliatives, people, pollution, roads, road surfaces, tourism, travel times, unsealed roads, vehicle operating costs, vehicle wear, visibility

Research Report 014 Total mobility scheme: influences on costs and usage

Published: | Category: Transport demand management , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

The New Zealand Total Mobility Scheme is a nationwide project to assist with provision of transportation for people with disabilities that preclude their use of public transport. Findings related to the costs of, and external influences on, the New Zealand Total Mobility Scheme are discussed. Field work was carried out predominantly in Auckland, although information from other regions was also obtained. A total of 62 people from local voluntary agencies (and in some cases, from their national executive), transport organisations, local authorities and Government organisations were interviewed. This approach was supplemented by relevant reports, legislation, formal policies and practice guiedlines where available. Information was analysed to assess the cost and ridership impact on the Total Mobility Scheme.

Research Report 013 Evaluation sensitivity analysis

Published: | Category: Activity management , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

The guidelines for sensitivity analysis in project evaluation, as used in the Transit New Zealand Project Evaluation Manual (PEM), have been improved. This report provides an approach and methodology for sensitivity analysis that is of practical assistance in road project evaluation, and includes a revised version of Appendix A9, Sensitivity Analysis, for the PEM. Sensitivity analysis determines how sensitive a project analysis (eg its benefit:cost ratio) is to the effect of varying one input parameter at a time. Issues of uncertainty in relation to road project evaluations are discussed, sensitivity analysis and other methods for dealing with such uncertainties are described as are the current sensitivity analysis procedures applied by Transit New Zealand. Possible directions for development of improved procedures and the results of a consultation workshop are given, as well as recommendations for revising the procedures and for on-going developments for project evaluation.

Research Report 012 Quantification of intangibles: a review of intangible factors for Transit New Zealand's project evaluation manual

Published: | Category: Activity management , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

Appendix A7, Intangible Costs and Benefits, of Transit New Zealand's Project Evaluation Manual (1991 edition) is reviewed. The review makes suggestions on: additional intangibles which should be included; modifications to intangibles already recognised in the PEM; methods by which the intangibles could be measured or quantified; and further research to assist the quantification of the intangibles to be used in Appendix A7. The study reviewed available information on overseas practices and recent environmental impact studies on roading projects in New Zealand. Consultation with a group of users and non-users of the Project Evaluation Manual was also undertaken. Recommendations are made on methods of objective quantification of intangible factors for eventual incorporation into the Porject Evaluation Manual, as well as about the methodologies that may require further research and refinement.

Research Report 011 Emulsified bituminous materials in road maintenance and construction: a survey of current New Zealand practice

Published: | Category: Activity management , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

Bitumen emulsions are now being used in almost every application in which hot, cut-back or fluxed bitumen binders are used. A survey of current practice in New Zealand for road maintenance and construction from 1987 to 1991 is recorded. Experience ranges from using bitumen emulsion for maintenance, tack coat, sealing, and slurry applications for State Highways, City streets and Council roads, and in Transit New Zealand regions. Binder performance of bitumen in general is discussed, with particluar reference to the effects of heat, oxidation, cutter and luxing stocks, and emulsification. Acceptance criteria for bitumen emulsions are specified in terms of stability, curing characteristics, and resistance to stripping. The summary provides volumes of bitumen used annually in New Zealand, applications used for bituminous emulsions, comparison of costs of hot bitumen with those of bitumen emulsions, as well as lists of benefits and limitations of bitumen emulsions.

Research Report 008 Urban road traffic models for economic appraisal

Published: | Category: Integrated land use and transport systems , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

Research for this project identified and developed a range of traffic analysis software suitable for New Zealand use to evaluate urban road improvement schemes. Outputs of the models, in the form of traffic performance characteristics, are used to estimate expected economic benefits from alternative options for a road improvement scheme. This is to allow funding agencies to allocate resources rationally to competing projects. Criteria were defined for evaluating existing traffic analysis software. Overseas and New Zealand software were then appraised, and detailed analysis of the selected software was conducted. Research results summarise the analysis and evaluation of existing computer-based packages for intersections, arterial networks, motorways, small area networks and city-wide networks. They also summarise the in-depth investigations of existing models such as NETSIM and MULATM. A summary of theoretical work and accompanying references is given, together with an outline of the program MULDEL.

Research Report 010 Accident countermeasures: literature review

Published: | Category: Safety, security and public health , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

The Accident Countermeasures Research project provides information about the accident reductions that could be expected under New Zealand conditions if particular accident countermeasures are implemented. To achieve this objective, international literature on the effects of accident countermeasures, especially that which examined the impacts of countermeasures on specific accident types and on accident severity, was reviewed. The literature originated from 11 coutries, with Australia, USA, the United Kingdom and New Zealand provding the highest number of publications. Particular emphasis was given to information relating to the last five years, but earlier information was also assembled if it was readily available. An overview of the work undertaken in the project, the project findings, and summaries of the information available in the literature are supplied.