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Research Report 666 Social impact assessment of mode shift

Published: | Category: Inclusive access , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

This research was commissioned to inform decision-makers about the social impacts of mode shift, and to enhance the likelihood that benefits will be equitably shared. The report finds that a greater understanding of existing inequities in transport resources and access to opportunities can help to target mode shift policies so that they contribute to achieving optimal transport outcomes and wellbeing for all. Keywords: distributional impacts, equity, mode shift, New Zealand, social impacts, transport appraisal, Waka Kotahi NZ Transport Agency

Research Report 665 Valuing freight transport time and reliability

Published: | Category: Economic prosperity , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

This research was undertaken to address a knowledge and data gap in transport economic analysis on the value of freight travel time and reliability. Values have been developed from this research and will be included in the Waka Kotahi Economic Evaluation Manual (EEM).  

The information will assist the planning and development of business cases to improve the transport system, recognising the value of improvements in reliability, frequency of services and loss/damage to freight in transit. These values will support multi-model analysis of improvements to the transport system. Keywords: contingent valuation, economic evaluation, freight transport, New Zealand, service frequency, stated preference (SP), transport investment, transport reliability, travel time, value of reliability (VoR), value of time (VoT), willingness to pay (WTP)

Research Report 663 The New Zealand public’s readiness for connected- and autonomous-vehicles (including driverless), car and ridesharing schemes and the social impacts of these

Published: | Category: Inclusive access , Research programme , Research & reports | Audiences: Electric vehicle motorists, General, Motorists

This research was commissioned to provide Waka Kotahi and the Ministry of Transport with information about the New Zealand public’s readiness to adopt four key mobility changes: autonomous vehicles, connected vehicle technology, car sharing, and ride sharing schemes.    

The research found that New Zealanders have a good knowledge of CAVs and app-based ridesharing, but few have heard about ridesharing and carsharing schemes. There are also widespread safety concerns alongside issues of availability, cost and convenience. However, comparisons with international data suggest that at the time of writing this report the New Zealand public was more aware and ready to use CAVs than some overseas jurisdictions. Keywords: attitudes, autonomous vehicles, carsharing, connected vehicles, mobility as a service, ridesharing

Research Report 662 Best practice model for developing legislation

Published: | Category: Inclusive access , Research & reports

The aim of this research was to develop a model to guide the development of land transport regulation in the context of New Zealand’s public safety regulatory environment. The research found legislation tends to reflect a particular moment in time. Regulatory failures often share common factors, from which we can learn. New Zealand’s regulators tend to work within constraints that impede their ability to develop flexible regulation for rapidly changing conditions. The report proposes a systems model for regulatory design. Keywords: developing legislation, regulatory design, regulatory failures, regulatory tools, transport safety

Research Report 664 Risks of driving when affected by cannabis, MDMA (ecstasy) and methamphetamine and the deterrence of such behaviour: a literature review

Published: | Category: Healthy and safe people , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

This literature review research report on the risks of driving under the influence of drugs and on enforcement of drug driving laws was carried out to inform policy development, including cost-benefit analysis of potential changes to roadside enforcement approaches. The report confirms that cannabis and other drugs lead to more dangerous driving, particularly in combination with alcohol. It shows, however, that there is no clear relationship between the level of drugs consumed and the degree of risky driving. Also, although the principles on which deterrence efforts should be based are clear, the relative deterrent effects of various types of enforcement on drug use among drivers have not been clearly established. Keywords: ambulance, crash, emergency, impact, post-crash, rescue, road,     

Research Report 661 Travel demand management: strategies and outcomes

Published: | Category: Inclusive access , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

Travel demand management (TDM) is a rapidly changing field. This research drew lessons from international practice to inform New Zealand planning and policy decisions. The research findings show that a wide range of strategies are in use internationally and the report summarises some key insights from international TDM practice. Keywords: behaviour change case study, cycling, incentives, mobility management, parking, public transport, transport, travel demand management, walking

Research Report 640 Understanding the value of meeting the requirements of environmental legislation

Published: | Category: Environmental sustainability , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

This research developed a framework to enable roading authorities to understand the value of meeting the requirements of environmental legislation for roading improvement projects. The Resource Management Act 1991 (RMA) is New Zealand’s main piece of legislation that determines how the environment is managed and was the focus of this research. Government and roading authorities are seeking an understanding of the costs and benefits of environmental mitigation in particular, which meant this research sought to understand the outcomes of the ‘avoid, remedy, mitigate’ process set out in section 5 of the RMA.  

Value was determined to be the difference between costs and benefits. The research recognised that not all benefits can be adequately monetised at this point in time, so the framework captures qualitative information, quantitative information and monetary measures.

Research Report 659 Urban transport modelling in New Zealand – data, practice and resourcing

Published: | Category: Economic prosperity , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

Household Travel Survey data is an essential component of building a transportation model. The New Zealand Ministry of Transport (MOT) has recently embarked on a rolling programme of annual surveys. This research project confirmed that, with some changes, the data collected in the surveys was adequate to build existing model forms currently being used and would be suitable if tour-based or activity-based transportation models were to be built in the future, noting that sample sizes in the MOT survey would need augmenting for this purpose.  

As part of the project a stocktake of current models was undertaken, as was a short survey of the public sector transport modelling resource in New Zealand. The study concludes with suggestions for topics of future research. Keywords: household interview, transport models, travel behaviour

Erratum - 8 October 2019
Table 2. 6 page 17 and tables 2. 8 and 2.

Research Report 660 Factors affecting cycling levels of service

Published: | Category: Inclusive access , Research programme , Research & reports | Audiences: General, Walkers & cyclists

This report examines cyclists’ perceptions of cycle infrastructure levels of service and proposes an assessment methodology for evaluating the level of service provided by cycling facilities. First, a range of methodologies for evaluation cycling levels of service are described. These are diverse in both their approach and foundations, ranging from tools that are based exclusively upon expert opinion and judgement, to those that rely on user perceptions of infrastructure quality. The latter is an ongoing field of research that seeks to understand what is most important to the cyclists who ride on the infrastructure we build, and to those contemplating doing so.

Research report 657 Human factor considerations for a licensing point system

Published: | Category: Healthy and safe people , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

The NZ Transport Agency sought to better understand how licensing point systems (LPSs) operate, including how different population groups respond to LPSs

A literature review provided a theoretical background for understanding the functions of LPSs and factors that may influence LPS effectiveness. The LPSs that exist worldwide were studied to identify the features of a ‘best-practice’ system. The Transport Agency offence data for all New Zealand-licensed drivers from 2005 to 2014 was analysed to explore how individuals and cohort drivers respond to licensing points, and to identify factors that impact on the likelihood of multiple offending. An on-line survey of a representative sample of 999 New Zealand adult car-licence holders and focus groups with four key road-user groups (young novice drivers, Māori drivers, professional drivers and motor cyclists) were conducted to investigate knowledge of, and attitude toward, the LPS, as well as acceptability of possible refinements.