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Research Report 645 Post-impact care: How can New Zealand address the fifth pillar of road safety?

Published: | Category: Safety, security and public health , Research programme , Research & reports | Audiences: General, Medical practitioners, Road controlling authorities

Post-crash care of victims is considered by the World Health Organisation to be the fifth pillar of the safe system approach to road safety. Timeliness and quality of transport of crash victims from the crash site to hospital door is crucial to medical outcomes. It is important that road controlling authorities (RCAs) and Road Policing work together with Emergency Services to provide the best possible outcomes for the available resources. This report considers the roles of RCAs and Road Policing in facilitating transport of crash victims from the crash site to the hospital door. The report includes a literature and technology review, a crash analysis and estimates of the time from crash notification to hospital. Also considered are issues arising from a workshop of stakeholders and an online survey of front-line staff from Road Policing, St John and Fire and Emergency New Zealand.

Research Report 649 Great Kiwi road trips: enhancing New Zealand’s tourism industry through better visitor journeys

Published: | Category: Environmental impacts of land transport , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of the expectations, motivations, experiences, information preferences and behaviour of visitors (both domestic and international) travelling on New Zealand’s transport network. Such knowledge enables a multi-agency approach combining tourism, heritage and transport to identify ways to monitor and improve visitor travel experiences, grow tourism and consequently promote regional economic gain. To do this, a pilot visitor travel survey was trialled, including an information-based intervention. The purpose of this was to capture unique visitor travel behaviour information, and to test a method to deliver during-trip information in a fun, interactive format, using motivation theory and gamification methods to promote different visitor experiences in an intervention group (compared with a control group).

Research Report 643 Drivers’ response to warnings/information provided by in-vehicle information systems (IVIS)

Published: | Category: Safety, security and public health , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

The purpose of the research was to provide an analysis of drivers’ use of IVIS, smartphone applications and nomadic devices and their likely effects on driver performance. We examined the effects of a speed advisory IVIS presented on a mobile phone on the driving performance of 123 participants in the University of Waikato driving simulator. We also conducted a New Zealand-wide survey (n = 1,017) of drivers to examine the prevalence of, and frequency with which, drivers used a range of in-vehicle apps and systems. The speed advisory IVIS, designed according to best practice guidelines, improved compliance with the posted speed limits and did not impair driving performance or distract drivers. The survey found that drivers most frequently used in-vehicle audio systems and navigation devices, and a small but significant number reported using hand-held mobile phones.

Research Report 644 The crash performance of seagull intersections and left-turn slip lanes

Published: | Category: Safety, security and public health , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

A number of alternative intersection layouts are used around the country to reduce traffic delays and to improve road safety. One such group of alternative intersections are termed ‘priority controlled seagull intersections’. Seagull intersections are often used on roads to reduce traffic delays as they allow right-turning traffic from the side road to give way to traffic flow on the main road one direction at a time (without impeding the through traffic). However a number of seagull intersections experience high crash rates. This can be a result of design compromises (e. g. short merges) and/or due to the complexity and unfamiliarity of this intersection layout. While there is considerable debate about the safety problems that occur at seagull intersections and left-turn slip lanes at priority intersections, there has been very little research that attempts to quantify the safety impact of different layouts.

Research Report 646 Impacts of socio-demographic changes on the NZ land transport system

Published: | Category: Economic development , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

We present a discussion about how socio-demographic factors affect the demand for personal land travel. Socio-demographic is a convenient adjective that we use to cover primarily demographic factors, plus their interaction with employment and income. Other factors such as urbanisation and new technologies are also briefly discussed. We look primarily at overseas literature on various theories that per capita demand for travel has peaked and/or shifted modes, and at the evidence for and against these theories. Local literature on this topic is scarce so we decompose New Zealand data on travel by private vehicle, finding that socio-demographic factors can explain most of the changes in private vehicle travel since 1998.  

We also use a model that was specifically designed to project New Zealand travel demand to explore the effects of socio-demographic factors on private travel. Most scenarios project continued growth.

Research Report 647 Driving change technology diffusion in the transport sector

Published: | Category: Economic development , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

Technology diffusion will have profound impacts on the transport system. This report does not attempt to predict the future, but instead aims to guide policymakers in thinking about how technology could affect the transport sector.  

The focus is on the behaviour of the transport user and how it translates into technology diffusion and then affects transport.  As a guide, we developed a behavioural monitoring framework that incorporated several components. The components included:

a simplified model of the transport system to focus on important variables
a diffusion model based on the well-known Bass model
advice for horizon scanning to identify and understand technologies with potential to affect transport. We applied the framework to two case studies:

mobility as a service
electric vehicles. These technologies are seeing limited uptake in New Zealand and appear to face challenges.

Research Report 642 The influence of internet use on transport demand

Published: | Category: Economic development , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

This report presents a discussion of the influence that internet-enabled communication technologies are having, and might have, on patterns of transport demand in New Zealand. First, a range of mechanisms by which the internet could reasonably be expected to influence transport demand are described. In-depth interviews with decision makers at public and private organisations in New Zealand highlighted two main areas where change is being driven by internet communication technologies: direct effects on transport demand; and the changing nature of the physical workplace, which has outcomes for transport demand as people change where, when and how they work. There is a dearth of literature that quantifies a causal association between use of the internet and transport demand. Additionally, suitable datasets to measure the influence at city, regional or national levels do not currently exist in New Zealand.

Research Report 641 Developing a national measure for predictable public transport: bus, rail and ferry

Published: | Category: Performance monitoring , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

The ability to reliably predict public transport (PT) journey times is critical for network operators and transport authorities to measure, monitor and target improvements to the PT network, with flow-on effects for customers. Research conducted in New Zealand between August 2016 and August 2017 aimed to identify and develop an optimal measure for PT predictability.  This involved undertaking a local and international review of predictability/reliability measures used for PT or private vehicle travel, and included evaluation of measures. From this review, and consideration of the potential for inter-modal and inter-regional aggregation, a shortlist of three preferred measures was developed including: buffer index, modified buffer index and planning index.  Shortlisted measures were applied to a nationally aggregated set of PT travel data from across regions and PT modes.

Research Report 639 Technology related transport skill requirements and availability

Published: | Category: Transport demand management , Research programme , Research & reports | Audiences: General, Land developers

This paper reports an assessment of skills gaps and training needs likely in 2035 for New Zealand, resulting from the technological change from implementation of intelligent transport systems (ITS) in land transport. The research reported was funded by the New Zealand Transport Agency and conducted in 2017 in Wellington, New Zealand. The economics and engineering literature provides important insights into the impact of technological change on skills demanded and the consequences for occupations and training. Accordingly, to develop the skills gap assessment, we first developed scenarios of future ITS environments in New Zealand in 2035. This was informed by global literature on ITS technologies and their likely implementation by 2035. Paramount among these technologies were autonomous vehicles, where their level of autonomy and coverage of the national vehicle fleet by 2035, is a useful metric of the overall level of ITS development.

Research Report 636 Speed limit reductions to support lower SCRIM investigatory levels

Published: | Category: Safety, security and public health , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

This report details a framework for rationally arriving at economically justifiable operating speed reductions to compensate for the inability to achieve recommended levels of skid resistance on high-risk curves. The framework is based on vehicle speed-related procedures incorporated in the Transport Agency’s Economic evaluation manual. These procedures include travel time, vehicle operating costs, carbon dioxide emissions and crash severity. Relationships between the skid resistance level of the road surface and curve crash risk and expected service life of the road surface derived from previous New Zealand specific research are also employed. The framework was trialled on a 10 km section of state highway 58 with a 100 km/h speed limit.