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Research Report 648 A pilot study to determine the relative value of non-market transport impacts of investment

Published: | Category: Economic development , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

This research project examined whether a single new survey, and analysis of the data, could be used to obtain robust values for the monetary value of statistical life, prevented injuries, travel time savings, trip reliability and congestion. A review of approaches used elsewhere was followed by the design of a choice modelling survey and two rounds of initial testing. This was used to develop a pilot survey with an efficient experimental design, and implemented online and face-to-face with 72 people. The data was analysed to produce statistically significant values for all parameters. This suggests it is worthwhile proceeding with the design and implementation of a full survey with more participants. The survey described in this report, with the suggested changes, would be a suitable basis for such a survey and analysis. Keywords: choice modelling, non-market valuation, reliability, survey design, value of statistical life, value of time.

Research Report 653 Extension of NZ Transport Agency Research Report 629: System dynamics investigation of freight flows, economic development and network performance

Published: | Category: Economic development , Research programme , Research & reports | Audiences: Heavy vehicle operators, Road traffic engineers & consultants

In 2017 we developed a system dynamics model to study inter-regional freight and traffic flows in the Auckland–Hamilton–Tauranga triangle. Here we extend the model northward to Whangarei in order to incorporate Northport. This enables us to provide an order of magnitude estimate of how many truck movements might be required to transport freight between Auckland and Northport, if most or all of the exports and imports that currently pass through Ports of Auckland were to enter and leave New Zealand via Northport instead.  

Excluding the ALPURT to Wiri route, our results suggest that although there is probably enough road space per se to accommodate the extra trucks without significantly affecting travel times, their lower average speed would reduce the speed of other vehicles – and thus increase travel times – if there are insufficient opportunities for overtaking.

Research Report 650 Understanding current and forecast visitor flows to the South Island

Published: | Category: Economic development , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

Data is required for destination management, both of current visitor activity and future activity. This report reviews the data that currently exists for visits to the South Island of New Zealand, where tourism growth has been, and is still expected to be, strong. Not surprisingly no one dataset was found that could reasonably describe visitor activity, nor were there forecasts for core visitor activities across each region of the South Island. Methods were tested to show how currently available data, including an International Visitor Survey and a measure of electronic card spending, could be adjusted to derive measures of visitor presence. A three-part visitor flows model was presented that could be used to derive estimates of visitor flows between and within regions.

Research Report 649 Great Kiwi road trips: enhancing New Zealand’s tourism industry through better visitor journeys

Published: | Category: Environmental impacts of land transport , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of the expectations, motivations, experiences, information preferences and behaviour of visitors (both domestic and international) travelling on New Zealand’s transport network. Such knowledge enables a multi-agency approach combining tourism, heritage and transport to identify ways to monitor and improve visitor travel experiences, grow tourism and consequently promote regional economic gain. To do this, a pilot visitor travel survey was trialled, including an information-based intervention. The purpose of this was to capture unique visitor travel behaviour information, and to test a method to deliver during-trip information in a fun, interactive format, using motivation theory and gamification methods to promote different visitor experiences in an intervention group (compared with a control group).

Research Report 645 Post-impact care: How can New Zealand address the fifth pillar of road safety?

Published: | Category: Safety, security and public health , Research programme , Research & reports | Audiences: General, Medical practitioners, Road controlling authorities

Post-crash care of victims is considered by the World Health Organisation to be the fifth pillar of the safe system approach to road safety. Timeliness and quality of transport of crash victims from the crash site to hospital door is crucial to medical outcomes. It is important that road controlling authorities (RCAs) and Road Policing work together with Emergency Services to provide the best possible outcomes for the available resources. This report considers the roles of RCAs and Road Policing in facilitating transport of crash victims from the crash site to the hospital door. The report includes a literature and technology review, a crash analysis and estimates of the time from crash notification to hospital. Also considered are issues arising from a workshop of stakeholders and an online survey of front-line staff from Road Policing, St John and Fire and Emergency New Zealand.

Research Report 643 Drivers’ response to warnings/information provided by in-vehicle information systems (IVIS)

Published: | Category: Safety, security and public health , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

The purpose of the research was to provide an analysis of drivers’ use of IVIS, smartphone applications and nomadic devices and their likely effects on driver performance. We examined the effects of a speed advisory IVIS presented on a mobile phone on the driving performance of 123 participants in the University of Waikato driving simulator. We also conducted a New Zealand-wide survey (n = 1,017) of drivers to examine the prevalence of, and frequency with which, drivers used a range of in-vehicle apps and systems. The speed advisory IVIS, designed according to best practice guidelines, improved compliance with the posted speed limits and did not impair driving performance or distract drivers. The survey found that drivers most frequently used in-vehicle audio systems and navigation devices, and a small but significant number reported using hand-held mobile phones.

Research Report 644 The crash performance of seagull intersections and left-turn slip lanes

Published: | Category: Safety, security and public health , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

A number of alternative intersection layouts are used around the country to reduce traffic delays and to improve road safety. One such group of alternative intersections are termed ‘priority controlled seagull intersections’. Seagull intersections are often used on roads to reduce traffic delays as they allow right-turning traffic from the side road to give way to traffic flow on the main road one direction at a time (without impeding the through traffic). However a number of seagull intersections experience high crash rates. This can be a result of design compromises (e. g. short merges) and/or due to the complexity and unfamiliarity of this intersection layout. While there is considerable debate about the safety problems that occur at seagull intersections and left-turn slip lanes at priority intersections, there has been very little research that attempts to quantify the safety impact of different layouts.

Research Report 646 Impacts of socio-demographic changes on the NZ land transport system

Published: | Category: Economic development , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

We present a discussion about how socio-demographic factors affect the demand for personal land travel. Socio-demographic is a convenient adjective that we use to cover primarily demographic factors, plus their interaction with employment and income. Other factors such as urbanisation and new technologies are also briefly discussed. We look primarily at overseas literature on various theories that per capita demand for travel has peaked and/or shifted modes, and at the evidence for and against these theories. Local literature on this topic is scarce so we decompose New Zealand data on travel by private vehicle, finding that socio-demographic factors can explain most of the changes in private vehicle travel since 1998.  

We also use a model that was specifically designed to project New Zealand travel demand to explore the effects of socio-demographic factors on private travel. Most scenarios project continued growth.

Research Report 647 Driving change technology diffusion in the transport sector

Published: | Category: Economic development , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

Technology diffusion will have profound impacts on the transport system. This report does not attempt to predict the future, but instead aims to guide policymakers in thinking about how technology could affect the transport sector.  

The focus is on the behaviour of the transport user and how it translates into technology diffusion and then affects transport.  As a guide, we developed a behavioural monitoring framework that incorporated several components. The components included:

a simplified model of the transport system to focus on important variables
a diffusion model based on the well-known Bass model
advice for horizon scanning to identify and understand technologies with potential to affect transport. We applied the framework to two case studies:

mobility as a service
electric vehicles. These technologies are seeing limited uptake in New Zealand and appear to face challenges.

Research Report 642 The influence of internet use on transport demand

Published: | Category: Economic development , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

This report presents a discussion of the influence that internet-enabled communication technologies are having, and might have, on patterns of transport demand in New Zealand. First, a range of mechanisms by which the internet could reasonably be expected to influence transport demand are described. In-depth interviews with decision makers at public and private organisations in New Zealand highlighted two main areas where change is being driven by internet communication technologies: direct effects on transport demand; and the changing nature of the physical workplace, which has outcomes for transport demand as people change where, when and how they work. There is a dearth of literature that quantifies a causal association between use of the internet and transport demand. Additionally, suitable datasets to measure the influence at city, regional or national levels do not currently exist in New Zealand.