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Displaying Page 3 of 65

Research Report 641 Developing a national measure for predictable public transport: bus, rail and ferry

Published: | Audiences: Rail participants, Road controlling authorities, Road traffic engineers & consultants, Roading contractors

The ability to reliably predict public transport (PT) journey times is critical for network operators and transport authorities to measure, monitor and target improvements to the PT network, with flow-on effects for customers. Research conducted in New Zealand between August 2016 and August 2017 aimed to identify and develop an optimal measure for PT predictability.  This involved undertaking a local and international review of predictability/reliability measures used for PT or private vehicle travel, and included evaluation of measures. From this review, and consideration of the potential for inter-modal and inter-regional aggregation, a shortlist of three preferred measures was developed including: buffer index, modified buffer index and planning index.  Shortlisted measures were applied to a nationally aggregated set of PT travel data from across regions and PT modes.

Research Report 639 Technology related transport skill requirements and availability

Published: | Category: Transport demand management , Research programme , Research & reports | Audiences: General, Land developers

This paper reports an assessment of skills gaps and training needs likely in 2035 for New Zealand, resulting from the technological change from implementation of intelligent transport systems (ITS) in land transport. The research reported was funded by the New Zealand Transport Agency and conducted in 2017 in Wellington, New Zealand. The economics and engineering literature provides important insights into the impact of technological change on skills demanded and the consequences for occupations and training. Accordingly, to develop the skills gap assessment, we first developed scenarios of future ITS environments in New Zealand in 2035. This was informed by global literature on ITS technologies and their likely implementation by 2035. Paramount among these technologies were autonomous vehicles, where their level of autonomy and coverage of the national vehicle fleet by 2035, is a useful metric of the overall level of ITS development.

Research Report 636 Speed limit reductions to support lower SCRIM investigatory levels

Published: | Category: Safety, security and public health , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

This report details a framework for rationally arriving at economically justifiable operating speed reductions to compensate for the inability to achieve recommended levels of skid resistance on high-risk curves. The framework is based on vehicle speed-related procedures incorporated in the Transport Agency’s Economic evaluation manual. These procedures include travel time, vehicle operating costs, carbon dioxide emissions and crash severity. Relationships between the skid resistance level of the road surface and curve crash risk and expected service life of the road surface derived from previous New Zealand specific research are also employed. The framework was trialled on a 10 km section of state highway 58 with a 100 km/h speed limit.

Research Report 638 Network and asset management: benefits of real-time data

Published: | Category: Activity management , Research programme , Research & reports

Data is essential for understanding the demands placed on road assets and transport networks. There is an opportunity through advances in real-time technologies to improve the delivery of network management and asset management activities. This requires an understanding of both the real-time technologies that are available, and the real-time information needs of network managers and asset managers. This research investigated the applications of real-time technologies and data in asset and network management. This included identifying a range of opportunities for expanding the use of real-time technology, for example by making better use of existing datasets and improving the detection of incidents and defects. A range of challenges were also identified, including the difficulties of working with ‘big’ real-time datasets, the risk of reliance on technology and the need for specialist expertise to develop real-time applications.

Research Report 637 The future of employment and economic activity and its transport and land use implications

Published: | Category: Economic development , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

This report reviewed literature relating to the potential effects that automation and new technologies will have on the type, nature and characteristics of employment in the industrial, service and commercial sectors. The findings of that review were then supplemented with interviews of key sector representatives from large New Zealand companies and organisations. This took place between October 2016 and February 2017. Together the literature review and stakeholder interviews were used to confirm a methodology and define the parameters and assumptions of scenarios to test possible future employment and land use requirements. Those requirements were assessed for four scenarios and a business as usual baseline to explain the potential effects that automation and new technologies will have on the type, nature and characteristics of employment and land use in the industrial, service and commercial sectors. This work took place between February and July 2017.

Research Report 632 Framework for review and prioritisation of rail safety risks in New Zealand

Published: | Category: Safety, security and public health , Research programme , Research & reports | Audiences: General, Rail participants, Road controlling authorities, Road traffic engineers & consultants

The Transport Agency commissioned Navigatus Consulting to undertake this research project to identify and provide evidence-based recommendations for managing priority safety risks for New Zealand rail operations. The project was carried out in 2015/16 in New Zealand. The primary purpose of the project was to provide a reliable foundation for future risk reduction activities by carrying out research on best and current risk practice, undertaking a risk assessment to identify priority safety risks, and identifying potential mitigation options to reduce these priority risks to an acceptable level. A number of recommendations have been made relating to the research undertaken. Keywords: acceptable risk, benchmarking, health and safety, HSWA, NRSS4, rail, reasonably practicable, risk assessment, risk management, safety, SFAIRP.

Research Report 633 Analysis and interpretation of New Zealand long-term pavement performance data

Published: | Category: Activity management , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

A comprehensive statistical analysis and review of the dataset was undertaken on the March 2015 LTPP database, including application of transformations on the skewed raw data. Following a detailed analysis, it was found that the numerical data available to undertake a statistical analysis to identify factors that need to be present for accelerated condition trending was not sufficiently robust. It is not possible to find useful or significant correlations with this data set as it stands

A manual investigation by a person with extensive experience in road engineering and maintenance was undertaken. This investigated engineering explanations for the sites highlighted by the statistical analysis, which involved interpreting site photographs, notes and construction records. This review was unable to identify any reliable data to show pavements displaying cracking are at a higher risk of failure.

Research Report 634 Effect of road seal type on resistance to traffic stresses

Published: | Category: Activity management , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

This report details research carried out from 2016 to 2017 as the preparatory stage of a larger programme to understand how chipseals may be improved to withstand increases in horizontal shear forces imposed by traffic loadings. The research aimed to develop an understanding of mechanisms and factors that lead to chip loss resulting from surface shear stresses, and to develop a methodology for testing seal performance under realistic but controlled laboratory conditions. The report commences with a literature review to collate and examine existing data and experience on seal selection and chip loss processes from New Zealand and overseas. Physical mechanisms, site and vehicle factors that contribute to seal damage are also investigated. Finally, an experimental test method and plan is developed to quantitatively compare and evaluate the effect of seal and binder type on overall seal performance in the laboratory, but under realistic loading and temperature conditions.

Research Report 635 Pavement maintenance patch trials

Published: | Category: Activity management , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

There is anecdotal evidence that pavement maintenance patches fail within a few years and research was undertaken to develop a framework for predicting the life of patches to enable asset managers to choose the right treatment to give the life required with the lowest whole-of-life costs. A total of 12 maintenance patches were constructed consisting of cement stabilisation (two cement contents 1. 5 percent and 3 percent); mill and asphaltic concrete inlay; and full depth granular reconstruction replicated on three different state highways. These maintenance patches were treated as full pavement renewals in terms of testing and investigation prior to their construction. This information allowed basic pavement characteristics, such as the impact of traffic; pavement depth (adequate, inadequate or very inadequate); aggregate quality (good, average or poor); and pavement deflection (high, medium or low), to be determined prior to patching.

Research Report 631 Benefits and costs of different road expenditure activities

Published: | Category: Economic development , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: Road traffic engineers & consultants

This research report examines how benefit and cost appraisals for road operations, maintenance and renewal, and minor work improvements could be undertaken in a manner comparable with the appraisal framework for capital investments.  

In addition, this research seeks to answer what the target level of service should be for each classification of road across the entire network; what the marginal benefits and costs of changes are to the network-wide target level of service for a classification of road; and what the optimal split is between resilience improvements, safety improvements and operational improvements, particularly for minor work improvements. Keywords: cost-benefit analysis, decision support tool, maintenance, minor works, operations
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