A number of case studies, projects and studies are presented here to support the design guidance. We encourage you to provide case studies to the NZ Transport Agency for inclusion on this website so that success and lessons can be shared.
An Austroads compilation of case studies(external link) was prepared in 2014, providing 28 Australian and one New Zealand case study of urban and regional bicycle infrastructure – ‘Cycling Infrastructure Selected Case Studies’ is an Austroads Technical Report (AP-T282-14). The New Zealand case study was the ‘Bicycle-Activated Electronic Warning Sign’ at the Appleby Bridge, near Nelson.
A bi-directional (two-way) separated cycleway(external link)was installed on Beach Road in central Auckland in 2014/2015. The facility consists of a two-way 3m wide cycleway which is physically separated from general traffic by raised kerbs. The upgrade also included changes to intersections and landscaping.
A study of bus lanes in Auckland(external link) investigated whether the introduction of bus lanes changed or created new types of hazards for cyclist and motorcyclists. Of particular interest was the effect of turning vehicles ‘let through’ by drivers queuing in the opposing lane. Drivers of these turning vehicles have reduced visibility of the bus lane due to the opposing queued traffic and could pose a risk to cyclists and motorcyclists in the adjacent bus/cycle lane. The study found that found that at three of the four sites bus lanes had no discernible increase in crashes after implementation but at the Dominion Road site an increase was recorded. All of the sites experienced a reduction or ‘effective reduction’ (based on increased traffic/cyclist volumes) in crashes except for Dominion Road which had a 30% increase in crashes. It should be noted that these crashes include both cyclists and motorcyclists. The study concluded that there was a link between bus lane width and crash rates, as Dominion Road was the narrowest bus lane (3.0m) the other three bus lanes were 3.25m, 3.25m and 4.5m wide.
A major upgrade project is planned to enhance Federal Street’s aesthetics and create a shared space, so that it will not only be a practical option, but, more importantly, an attractive option, for walking and cycling.
The Grafton Gully Cycleway, an extension of the Northwestern Cycleway, opened in 2014. The cycle path generally follows the alignment of State Highway 16 connecting a shared path on Upper Queen Street with a shared path on Beach Road.
Auckland Council is rolling out a number of upgrade projects through initiatives such as the City Centre Masterplan, to help create the world's most liveable city. Since 2011, new shared spaces have opened on Darby Street, Lorne Street (outside the Auckland Library), Fort Street, Jean Batten Place, Fort Lane and Totara Avenue West in New Lynn.
The Auckland Council website(external link) includes before and after shots and a detailed report on how shared spaces are performing in terms of foot traffic, vehicle speeds, customer spending and perceptions of the area.
An operational safety review of the Shared Spaces in the Auckland CBD was undertaken at the request of Auckland Transport. The review outcomes was presented at the IPENZ Transportation Group Conference 2017 (see the paper(external link) and presentation(external link)).
The aim was to review Shared Spaces with respect to their safety record and operational performance from a transportation and public perspective, and to consider how well the design elements within the spaces were performing to enable the safe and appropriate use of these areas. The Shared Spaces reviewed in this study were generally considered to be operating reasonably successfully in terms of safety and operational performance. However, excessive traffic speeds (above 22km/h) were evident at several Shared Spaces. Also, traffic volumes were considered higher than desirable (above 2,000 vehicles/day) at two Shared Spaces.
Excessive traffic speeds and volumes are a key factor adversely affecting pedestrian safety and amenity within a Shared Space. Reducing both traffic speeds and traffic volumes is important for achieving a fully successful outcome for a Shared Space. Various measures have been recommended to reduce traffic speeds and volumes within the Shared Spaces. These remedial measures would be expected to enhance safety and operational performance in the existing Shared Spaces, and should also be considered for incorporation into future Shared Spaces.
Opened in June 2017, Papanui Parallel Cycleyway aims to provide a dedicated, safe, high-quality cycle route that connects the Northern Line Cycleway, Sawyers Arms Road and Christchurch’s northern suburbs to the Central City.
The Rapanui – Shag Rock Cycleway is one of Christchurch City’s 13 major cycleways. The first section of the Rapanui Cycleway opened in December 2017 and the first 2 km of the route, from Fitzgerald Avenue to Aldwins Road, is a neighbourhood greenway. This links to Linwood Park and beyond.
Christchurch City Council introduced uni-directional separated cycleways on both sides of Tennyson Street in 2001. The protected cycleways transition to cycle lanes across the intersections in order to give cyclists right of way at the intersections. This design is described as ‘clumsy’ in the Post implementation review [PDF, 718 KB] however it is noted that it is necessary due to the current legislation. At the time of the review there was insufficient cyclist crash data to draw any real conclusions about the safety performance of the side road intersection layouts.
Cycle lanes in Hastings have been marked with dashed green lines inside the cycle lane edge and lane lines. These dashed green lines are considered to raise the visibility of the cycle lane and therefore people cycling more than the white markings alone. Further information is provided in a research paper published on the RCA Forum website(external link).
The Waimea River Bridge in Appleby is a key arterial connection between Richmond, Brightwater and local destinations and is commonly used by bicycle commuters. An electronic cycle warning signs system to improve cycle safety on narrow high risk roads. The warning signs are activated via bicycle-sensitive induction loops on the road verge and notify vehicles approaching the bridge of cyclist presence. It was found(external link) that the installation of the signs coincided with a noticeable change in driver behaviour. Drivers were found to wait behind cyclists and drive more cautiously.
Portland has an extensive neighbourhood greenway network(external link). In Portland the posted speed limit for these neighbourhood greenways is generally 20 mph (32 km/h) and they strive for an average volume of less than 1500 vehicles per day (vpd). From 2014, Portland has been installing signs on neighbourhood greenways to “help people better understand the type of road they are using”.
A study(external link) into the impact of marked and coloured cycle lanes concluded that where a cycle lane was coloured, drivers appeared to be more aware of cyclists as they gave cyclists more space. Cyclists also appeared to feel safer as they were found to ride further from the kerb.
The study also investigated the cost of implementing coloured cycle lanes. Maintenance of coloured surfaces varies with the amount of traffic travelling over the cycle lane (e.g. at intersections), colour retention of the product used, future roadworks and laying conditions. Thermoplastic was found to be the most cost effective product over a 20 year period.
A bi-directional separated cycle facility was constructed on St Vincent Street in Nelson in 2014. Users of this facility are required to give way at all priority side roads along its length due to the roadway definition within the Road User Rule. The Post implementation safety audit report [PDF, 2.5 MB] notes that the resulting situation is very complex for cyclists as they must essentially survey 270o to look for opposing traffic and determine whether they must give way. The safety audit report notes that over time, as cyclist volumes increase and legislation changes, it may be appropriate to change the priority of the facility at the side road intersections.
This bi-directional separated cycleway (known as the ‘Morey St Cycleway’) along Morey Street, Rotorua, was implemented in 2016. The cycleway was not included in Rotorua’s original cycle network planning, but the closure of a nearby pathway through a reserve that previously provided an important walking and cycling link obliged Council to provide an alternative, safe connection for school students.