This page relates to the 2021-24 National Land Transport Programme.
This page provides descriptions of each of the entities that are related to land transport legislation. Information on each piece of legislation and on the planning documents involved can be found on separate pages.
Kāinga Ora – Homes and Communities was established by the Kāinga Ora – Homes and Communities Act 2019 to contribute to sustainable, inclusive and thriving communities that – (a) provide people with good quality, affordable housing choices that meet diverse needs, (b) support good access to jobs, amenities and services, and (c) otherwise sustain or enhance the overall economic, social, environmental and cultural well-being of current and future generations.
Kāinga Ora – Homes and Communities Act 2019 establishes Kāinga Ora.
Urban Development Act 2020 consolidates processes and provides additional powers for Kāinga Ora.
KiwiRail has responsibility for preparing the Rail Network Investment Programme.
The regulatory aspects of rail safety in New Zealand are under the authority of Waka Kotahi NZ Transport Agency.
The Land Transport Management Act 2003 (LTMA) sets out a range of responsibilities and influences for Kiwirail.
LTMA s16: Auckland/Wellington regional land transport programmes (RLTPs) must include a list of significant rail activities proposed by KiwiRail.
You can read more about the role of Waka Kotahi in rail.
Regional councils play an important role in planning and funding land transport in their areas. They approve regional land transport plans (put forward by regional transport committees) that set out regional objectives and priorities, the activities proposed by councils in the region and the activities Waka Kotahi (for its own activities) proposes for state highways.
Regional councils are created under the Local Government Act 2002.
You can read more on the role of regional councils and unitary authorities in planning and investment, on the Waka Kotahi website.
Regional transport committees consist of representatives of regional councils, territorial authorities and Waka Kotahi (for its own activities), and in some cases KiwiRail, under the Land Transport Management Act 2003. They are responsible for preparing regional land transport plans.
The LTMA ss105–107 relate to establishing regional transport committees.
You can read more on local government strategies and plans on the Waka Kotahi website.
The New Zealand Police have a role in transport safety and enforcement. The LTMA s10 allows for the National Land Transport Fund to be used to pay for 'police activities or combinations of police activities approved under section 18L'. Waka Kotahi prepares recommendations on these activities for the Minister of Transport (s18I) in consultation with the Secretary of Transport and Commissioner of Police (s18J). Waka Kotahi must be satisfied that these police activities '(i) contribute to the purpose of this Act; and (ii) are consistent with the GPS on land transport'. For example, the Government Policy Statement on land transport 2021 included funding for 1,070 dedicated road police. Waka Kotahi monitors the delivery of these activities under section 102.
The LTMA ss18I–18M relate to the process of recommending police activities for funding.
The responsibilities of territorial authorities (city and district councils) in relation to land transport cover local roads, footpaths and street lighting as well as local planning, road safety works and parking services. They also actively participate in land transport planning and the National Land Transport Programme funding process.
The Local Government Act 2002 s12 establishes territorial authorities.
The Resource Management Act 1991 s72 requires territorial authorities to prepare district plans.
The LTMA s105 gives territorial authorities representation on regional transport committees, which prepare regional land transport plans.
You can read more on the role of territorial authorities in planning and investment on the Waka Kotahi website.
Waka Kotahi NZ Transport Agency was established on 1 August 2008 as a Crown entity under the LTMA, by the 2008 amendments to that act.
When established, it combined the expertise and functions of Land Transport NZ (created in 2004) and Transit NZ. The regulatory functions within Land Transport NZ were originally performed by the Land Transport Safety Authority, created in 1993.
Waka Kotahi has three core functions:
The Government Policy Statement on land transport is the mechanism that sets out expectations for government investment spend from the National Land Transport Fund. It does not refer to expectations from the regulatory function. Regulatory functions are instead set up by statute and funded through different funding sources.
You can read more about Waka Kotahi, including structure, board, leadership team, legal framework, partners and stakeholders, and annual reports.