Making walking a safer and more attractive transport choice is a key priority for the Transport Agency.
View research on walking experiences and the network for walking and footpath users in New Zealand.
Since 2018, Waka Kotahi has been tracking urban New Zealanders’ attitudes and perceptions towards walking and cycling, as well as their use of different modes of transport. The findings of this survey are published annually.
This research helps us monitor progress towards our goal of making walking and cycling safer and more attractive transport options. It also provides valuable insights around urban New Zealanders’ motivations for walking and cycling, and the barriers that prevent them. Supporting more people to make these modes of transport a greater part of their everyday lives will help us meet our emissions reduction targets, while increasing our health and wellbeing and helping our towns and cities to thrive.
Understanding attitudes and perceptions of cycling and walking reportsClose
This interim guidance includes a procedure consistent with existing Economic Evaluation Manual (EEM) guidance to value the benefits of quality improvements for users of footpaths and walking environments, and provides interim parameter values that can be used to value quality (including amenity) improvements. The values provided are interim until further work to confirm the parameter values in a New Zealand is complete.
The interim guidance is called ‘valuing improved pedestrian facilities’ rather than valuing urban amenity. Whilst conceptually this work has its origin in the Transport for London (TfL) tool ‘Valuing Urban Realm Tool (VURT)’, because of location-specific differences and the EEM already providing for some elements of VURT, for example safety, a framework that is conceptually and methodologically sound for New Zealand with defendable parameter values has been developed.
This report was commissioned by Waka Kotahi NZ Transport Agency and prepared by P Nunns and N Dodge (11 March 2020).
Impact on urban amenity in pedestrian environments [PDF, 962 KB]Close
The NZ Transport Agency commissioned Abley to conduct research into how well New Zealand is providing for walking, with a particular focus on existing guidance and policy.
The research indicated that overall, New Zealand is well placed in terms of the strategic direction, policy and planning and design guidance, however there are some improvements that can be made into the funding processes and translating guidance into good practice.
The Transport Agency is developing a programme of work to review and implement the report’s recommendations.
View research report [PDF, 4.3 MB]
View research summary presentation [PDF, 1.9 MB]
The question of pedestrian experience is an important one, as it can help to shape the streets in a way that will encourage more people to enjoy them as pedestrians.
The purpose of this literature review is to bring together a disparate literature on pedestrians to consider: who walks, why (and why not) they walk, where they walk, and their attitudes and beliefs to walking. Most importantly, this review will consider how these different facets shape their experience as pedestrians.
Inconsistencies in the literature and research gaps are also highlighted in this review.
View literature review [PDF, 1.2 MB]Close
Research conducted by Waka Kotahi NZ Transport Agency:
In 2003, Sport and Recreation New Zealand (SPARC) and the Cancer Society of New Zealand commissioned a major social marketing survey to segment adult New Zealanders in terms of physical activity and healthy eating habits. The questionnaire included several transport-related questions. The resulting ‘Obstacles to Action’ database contains responses from over 8000 people aged 16 or over.Close
Conducted in 2005, this study evaluates a case-control design of contrasts between walkers and drivers to address factors influencing the uptake of walking as a mode choice.Close
This report seeks to provide a per-kilometre value for the health benefits of active transport modes (such as walking and cycling) that is compatible with the Land Transport New Zealand Economic Evaluation Manual Volume 2 (EEM2).Close
The overall research objective was to evaluate changes in pedestrian safety and traffic efficiency from installing pedestrian countdown timers. The study analysed pedestrian behaviour and safety before and after the installation of a trial countdown timer at the intersection of Queens Street, Bunny Street and Margaret Street in Lower Hutt in July 2007.Close
Research carried out in 2008–2010 examined the quantum and causes of non-motor vehicle injuries to pedestrians through a structured interview survey. Pedestrians sustaining injuries in locations away from the road network (eg in parks) were excluded, as the emphasis was on the role of road and footpath features.Close
SPARC's Active New Zealand Survey (ANZS) is a high-quality nationwide survey of over 4000 adults collected through face-to-face interviews over 12 months in 2007/08. Although collected mainly to measure levels of sport/recreation activity and to quantify physical activity in general, it includes data of interest to the transport sector on walking and cycling. This report uses the ANZS data to meet transport-related objectives.Close
This research analysed case studies at eight New Zealand sites where the implementation of new pedestrian facilities (or the improvement of existing facilities) led to increased pedestrian usage and improved perception of the sites.Close
This research investigated a method for collecting data relating to walk, cycle and public transport trips to land-use activities.Close
This research used techniques such as pedestrian attitude surveys, micro-simulation modelling and a literature review of international best practice to identify methods of reducing pedestrian delay at signalised intersections in these cities. The recommendations developed during the course of the research provide both technical and policy mechanisms for improving pedestrian delay in New Zealand's central-city areas.Close
This research provides a number of mathematical formulas for predicting the quality of the walking environment from the perspective of the user using operational and physical variables.Close
This research aimed to determine the key factors that contribute to the quality and attractiveness of the pedestrian network, and to incorporate those in a consistent framework to inform the planning, design and operation of transport systems.Close
This research set out to show how the transport sector contributes to better living conditions for all New Zealand citizens through investment in related capital.
Maximum wellbeing benefits will be achieved by ensuring that everyone has access to high quality, low-carbon, transport systems that promote health and social connection and generate high levels of travel satisfaction. The built environment, especially urban density, has a significant impact on the viability of active and public transport systems.Close
This research was undertaken to help inform network planning for walking or cycling which is commonly undertaken with limited evidence or unreliable data.
The research produced a stocktake and assessment of methodologies for estimating latent demand for walking and cycling and a ‘decision tree’ that can be used to identify the most appropriate modelling approach, or approaches.Close
Research notes are the output of research generally undertaken within short timeframes by Waka Kotahi in response to a specific issue or development and the outputs are not independently peer reviewed.
There is currently a gap in terms of robust national models and tools that provide customer levels of service information regarding the ‘walkability’ of our pedestrian networks. Decision makers need better information from the perspective of people as pedestrians or public transport users.
The priority factors for a positive pedestrian experience are the need to relax, and there are two overarching factors that contribute to a positive pedestrian environment and a relaxing experience – safety and amenity.
The research has informed research report RR 667 – Developing methodologies for improving customer levels of service for walking.Close