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Research Report 663 The New Zealand public’s readiness for connected- and autonomous-vehicles (including driverless), car and ridesharing schemes and the social impacts of these

Published: | Category: Inclusive access , Research programme , Research & reports | Audiences: Electric vehicle motorists, General, Motorists

This research was commissioned to provide Waka Kotahi and the Ministry of Transport with information about the New Zealand public’s readiness to adopt four key mobility changes: autonomous vehicles, connected vehicle technology, car sharing, and ride sharing schemes.    

The research found that New Zealanders have a good knowledge of CAVs and app-based ridesharing, but few have heard about ridesharing and carsharing schemes. There are also widespread safety concerns alongside issues of availability, cost and convenience. However, comparisons with international data suggest that at the time of writing this report the New Zealand public was more aware and ready to use CAVs than some overseas jurisdictions. Keywords: attitudes, autonomous vehicles, carsharing, connected vehicles, mobility as a service, ridesharing

Research Report 578 Removing barriers to the use of crumb rubber in roads

Published: | Category: Activity management , Research programme , Research & reports | Audiences: General, Roading contractors

The purpose of this research was to identify the barriers to using tyre-derived crumb rubber in bitumen binder in New Zealand roading and the methods to remove these barriers to create market demand for New Zealand waste tyre-derived products. As a result of the comprehensive literature review and stakeholder consultations, it was found that the key barriers in New Zealand were high initial cost of specialist equipment, the relatively small market, security of supply and implications of the industry’s switch to emulsion binders. Fortunately, with a growing appetite for better performance in roading infrastructure and continued technological advancement, a number of solutions were identified. These include growing the use of modified binders over the network and investigation into the use of devulcanised rubber.

Research Report 674 Mode shift to micromobility

Published: | Category: Inclusive access , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

The performance of the transport network can be improved by anticipating the impacts of new micro-mobility technologies and how the introduction of new modes may be managed to optimise benefits.  

In this research transport modelling, based on several assumptions about micro-mobility, suggested higher usage of shared paths and separated cycle facilities than for forecasts of push-bikes alone. The growth in availability and ownership of micro-mobility may also lead to increase in public transport patronage as a result of first mile/last mile micro-mobility use.  

Keywords: bike, e-scooter, first/last mile, micromobility, mode share, mode shift, shared mobility, sustainable transportation

Research Report 582 Time and fuel effects of different travel speeds

Published: | Category: Safety, security and public health , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

This project investigated the effect of different maximum trip speeds for six New Zealand routes. The study recorded actual mean speeds, time taken and fuel used. Speeds of 40km/h and 50km/h were tested on three short routes and speeds of 80km/h, 90km/h and 100km/h were tested on three long routes. On the short routes, decreasing maximum speed decreased mean speed by 7% to 14% and increased travel time by 8% to 15%. Trips at 40km/h used 3% to 5% less fuel on the two Wellington routes but the difference in fuel used was not significant on the Auckland route. On the long routes, reducing trip maximum speed to 90km/h and 80 km/h reduced mean speed and increased travel time across all routes.

Research Report 675 The relationship between transport and mental health in Aotearoa New Zealand

Published: | Category: Healthy and safe people , Research programme , Research & reports

Little is known about the effects of transport on mental health in Aotearoa, and there is a need to collect better information about the experiences and needs of diverse transport users and to develop a better local understanding of these interrelationships. This literature review provides some initial clues about what role the transport systems could be playing in contributing to an increase in mental distress and mental illness in our communities. Keywords: transport, mental health, cities, quality of life, tāngata whaiora

Research Report 641 Developing a national measure for predictable public transport: bus, rail and ferry

Published: | Category: Performance monitoring , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

The ability to reliably predict public transport (PT) journey times is critical for network operators and transport authorities to measure, monitor and target improvements to the PT network, with flow-on effects for customers. Research conducted in New Zealand between August 2016 and August 2017 aimed to identify and develop an optimal measure for PT predictability.  This involved undertaking a local and international review of predictability/reliability measures used for PT or private vehicle travel, and included evaluation of measures. From this review, and consideration of the potential for inter-modal and inter-regional aggregation, a shortlist of three preferred measures was developed including: buffer index, modified buffer index and planning index.  Shortlisted measures were applied to a nationally aggregated set of PT travel data from across regions and PT modes.

Research Report 676 Latent demand for walking and cycling

Published: | Category: Inclusive access , Research programme , Research & reports

This research was undertaken to help inform network planning for walking or cycling which is commonly undertaken with limited evidence or unreliable data. The research produced a stocktake and assessment of methodologies for estimating latent demand for walking and cycling and a ‘decision tree’ that can be used to identify the most appropriate modelling approach, or approaches. Keywords: behaviour, cycling, latent demand, methods, model, walking

Research Note 004 Evaluating the greenhouse gas emission reduction benefits from land transport mode shift programmes and projects

Published: | Category: Environmental sustainability , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

This research note identifies a variety of land transport mode shift programmes that have demonstrated reductions in greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), primarily through changes in vehicle kilometres travelled (VKT). Many interrelated factors influence GHG emissions including the level of active mode or public transport infrastructure, land use planning, government policies, parking management, public transport pricing, and urban logistics. New Zealand can learn from these international programmes in terms of policy, implementation and measurement. The most immediate applications include mode-shift plans for New Zealand cities, environmental impact modelling, and developing emission reduction plans. Keywords: greenhouse gas, emissions, transport, vehicle kilometres travelled, measurement, mode shift

COVID-19 impacts on transport

Published: | Category: General , Research programme , COVID-19 , Statistics & surveys

Waka Kotahi NZ Transport Agency instigated a continuous monitor across New Zealand to assess the impact of COVID-19 on people's transport choices.  

The in-field questions started Friday, 3 April 2020 and the monitor will run a minimum of 24 waves. The nationally representative study offers insights into how people respond in their transport choices, their perceptions and attitudes to different modes of transport and how they change under the different COVID-19 Alert Levels.  

High level analyses, deep dive analyses and infographics will be published as they become available. Waka Kotahi has also created summarised tables from the COVID-19 impacts on transport research, and released them as open data to enable people to do their own analysis:

COVID-19 impacts on transport open data

The data shows how New Zealanders felt, behaved and travelled under the different COVID-19 alert levels.