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Research Report 373 Trends in trip chaining and tours: analysing changes in New Zealanders travel patterns using the Ongoing New Zealand household travel survey

Published: | Category: Transport demand management , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

This report describes the 2008/09 reformulation of the 2004–07 Ongoing New Zealand Household Travel Survey trips database into trip chains and tours. The reformulation required us to re-create programming sequences for key elements of the new datasets (segments, trip chains, tours, main mode and main purpose, and three different tour classification schemes) based on previous reformulation of the 1997/98 New Zealand Household Travel Survey dataset. The reformulated datasets permitted us to compare New Zealanders’ travel patterns in 1997/98 and over 2004–07. Thus, we can comment on some trends in New Zealander’s travel behaviour. Comparing the 2004–07 and 1997/98 datasets revealed that:

The mean number of trip chains per day (2. 3) and the mean number of tours per day (1. 3) were essentially unchanged. Both trip chains and tours were increasingly likely to have fewer segments.

Research report 440 Reducing pedestrian delay at traffic signals

Published: | Category: Sustainable land transport , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

Since 2000, the benefits of walking as a mode of travel have been recognised by the New Zealand government in a raft of policy statements and strategies. However, the Ministry of Transport acknowledges that there are a number of issues to overcome to encourage more walking. This research focuses on one of the key issues: namely, the delay experienced by pedestrians at traffic signals. Historically, New Zealand's approach to pedestrian delay has been minimal, with pedestrian issues considered primarily from the point of view of safety, rather than level of service or amenity. At traffic signals, pedestrians are often accommodated in a way that causes the least amount of interruption to motorised traffic, and signal cycle times can be long, leading to excessive pedestrian waiting times. This can lead to frustration, causing pedestrians to violate the signals and use their own judgement to cross, resulting in safety risks.

Research Report 504 Seismic design of New Zealand highway bridges under spatially varying ground excitations

Published: | Category: Activity management , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

Bridge damage, especially due to pounding and unseating at expansion joints has been observed in almost all major earthquakes. It is the result of large relative displacements of girders, in excess of the designed gap width and seating length. Research shows that relative displacements of neighbouring bridge segments depend on the fundamental frequencies of the adjacent structures, spatially varying ground motions and soil-structure interaction (SSI). To evaluate the significance of the influence of these factors, three identical bridge models with a scale ratio of 1:125 were tested using shake tables. Another study involved one of these models pounding with movable abutments. Lastly, another scaled model of 1:22 was field tested to study the SSI effect in comparison with the fixed-base results. The scaled models were designed in accordance with the principles of similitude.

Research Report 374 Comparisons of NZ and UK trips and parking rates

Published: | Category: Transport demand management , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

Trip generation, parking demand, modal split and travel activity related to different land uses are fundamental information for transportation planning and land use planning, now and in the future. While trip generation related to residential, business, tourism, recreation, industry and rural activities has been investigated, these areas have not always been surveyed or analysed consistently or reported in sufficient detail to provide transportation professionals with a robust assessment for planning and design purposes. This investigation sought to establish whether trip making and parking demand were similar between similar land uses in New Zealand and the United Kingdom. The conclusion is that travel patterns over a wide range of land uses, and especially those related to retail shopping centre activities, are similar in both countries. The analysis includes retail, service stations, restaurants, fast food, business parks, manufacturing, warehousing, medical centres, preschools and residential activities. Many characteristics are shared.

Research Report 438 Slow zones: their impact on mode choices and travel behaviour

Published: | Category: Sustainable land transport , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

Given that the safety impacts of traffic management measures, including their effect on traffic speed, have been reasonably well-established, we wanted to explore the potential impact of such treatments on mode choice and travel behaviour such as travel patterns. We created the term 'slow zone' treatment or programme to generically describe the aim of any programme that modified the physical road environment in such a way it would moderate driver behaviour, slow vehicle traffic, and/or improve the environment of the neighbourhood. We adopted an evaluability assessment framework as the methodological approach for this research project. Evaluability assessment is a systematic process that helps identify whether a planned programme evaluation is justified, feasible and likely to provide useful information. In the first stage of an assessment, one output is an evidence-based logic model.

Research Report 439 Generation of walking, cycling and public transport trips: pilot study

Published: | Category: Sustainable land transport , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

This research investigated a method for collecting data relating to walk, cycle and public transport trips to land-use activities. A method needed to be developed that would require a short questionnaire to ensure higher sample rates, while also providing reliable and consistent results. This data could subsequently be used in calculating trip rates for walk, cycle and public transport trips, when combined with trip rate units such as floor area. Multi-modal trip data has been collected for some time in the UK. The survey method developed in this research was simpler than the UK method by interviewing in only one direction for the vast majority of land uses, apart from residential where the recommended method was to interview in both directions. A face-to-face questionnaire method was developed over a series of different site surveys in Auckland, Wellington and Christchurch during 2010.

Research Report 061 Rolling resistance characteristics of New Zealand roads

Published: | Category: Activity management , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

New Zealand's road network uses pavement types of widely differing properties, ranging from very smooth asphaltic concrete to coarse chipseal surfaces having macrotexture levels not often found elsewhere in the world. A research programme was undertaken between 1988 and 1995 to investigate the effect of surface texture of a road on the rolling resistance of a typical tyre/car combination. Data available in the international literature was reviewed during 1994–95 following analysis of the New Zealand results. A comparison of the coastdown and steady state torque methods established that the latter was more suitable for measuring vehicle drag forces on public roads. Accordingly, it was used to obtain static and dynamic rolling resistance coefficients for 12 different road surfaces having approximately the same roughness, but with macrotexture depths which ranged from 0. 6 mm to 2. 7 mm.

Research report 505 Economic evaluation of the impact of safe speeds: literature review

Published: | Category: Safety, security and public health , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

The Safe System approach to road safety implies the goal of removing fatal and serious injury crashes from our road network. This review addresses:

alternative ways of classifying roads in relation to speed, across the road network, compatible with the Safe System approach
how speed relates to crashes, fuel consumption and emissions
the values currently placed on the costs of serious and fatal crashes, travel time and fuel savings in the developed world
how on a macroscopic scale these values can be translated into greenhouse gas emissions savings
how these values relate in the cost–benefit analysis context under a Safe System approach to speed. Well attested relationships were found between speed and crashes. Safe System road types related to the maximum speeds above which serious or fatal injury would occur in various types of crashes. Internationally, valuation of crashes is mainly based on willingness-to-pay criteria.

Research Report 503 A natural environment and cultural asset management system for New Zealands state highway network: towards a practical concept and application

Published: | Category: Environmental impacts of land transport , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

Internationally there is an increasing expectation for roadways to have a minimal environmental footprint, to express local environmental and cultural context, and to protect or respect natural, historical and landscape assets – in addition to being efficient and safe. New Zealand depends on the integrity of its clean green brand and the highways are the shop window of the nation and critical to the impression gained by overseas tourists and traders, but also to residents. Legibility of heritage is a sign of identity, protectiveness and cultural maturity. Key elements that should be revealed are geo-morphology, indigenous biota, Maori and colonial culture. This can be achieved through conservation, restoration and interpretation. Engagement with communities, iwi, engineers and ecologists is crucial, and culture change has to be championed at the highest level. Leadership must reinforce the latent interest in asserting an Aotearoa New Zealand identity.

Research Report 060 Assessing passing opportunities: literature review

Published: | Category: Integrated land use and transport systems , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

This literature review was undertaken in 1995 with two main objectives:

to develop a means of assessing the need for increased passing opportunity in the preliminary stages of a scheme evaluation
to evaluate the tools available to predict the effects of increased passing opportunities on highway operations. The report details the performance factors that should be considered in any assessment, summarises warrants used in other countries, and describes some tools used ot evaluate passing facilities. The report concludes that there is a need to research some performance measures for New Zealand that are related to driver perception of the highway, and that a computer-based simulation model such as TRARR or TWOPAS would be most appropriate for determining the benefits of passing opportunities. Keywords: Passing, overtaking, literature review