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Research Report 374 Comparisons of NZ and UK trips and parking rates

Published: | Category: Transport demand management , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

Trip generation, parking demand, modal split and travel activity related to different land uses are fundamental information for transportation planning and land use planning, now and in the future. While trip generation related to residential, business, tourism, recreation, industry and rural activities has been investigated, these areas have not always been surveyed or analysed consistently or reported in sufficient detail to provide transportation professionals with a robust assessment for planning and design purposes. This investigation sought to establish whether trip making and parking demand were similar between similar land uses in New Zealand and the United Kingdom. The conclusion is that travel patterns over a wide range of land uses, and especially those related to retail shopping centre activities, are similar in both countries. The analysis includes retail, service stations, restaurants, fast food, business parks, manufacturing, warehousing, medical centres, preschools and residential activities. Many characteristics are shared.

Research Report 438 Slow zones: their impact on mode choices and travel behaviour

Published: | Category: Sustainable land transport , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

Given that the safety impacts of traffic management measures, including their effect on traffic speed, have been reasonably well-established, we wanted to explore the potential impact of such treatments on mode choice and travel behaviour such as travel patterns. We created the term 'slow zone' treatment or programme to generically describe the aim of any programme that modified the physical road environment in such a way it would moderate driver behaviour, slow vehicle traffic, and/or improve the environment of the neighbourhood. We adopted an evaluability assessment framework as the methodological approach for this research project. Evaluability assessment is a systematic process that helps identify whether a planned programme evaluation is justified, feasible and likely to provide useful information. In the first stage of an assessment, one output is an evidence-based logic model.

Research Report 439 Generation of walking, cycling and public transport trips: pilot study

Published: | Category: Sustainable land transport , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

This research investigated a method for collecting data relating to walk, cycle and public transport trips to land-use activities. A method needed to be developed that would require a short questionnaire to ensure higher sample rates, while also providing reliable and consistent results. This data could subsequently be used in calculating trip rates for walk, cycle and public transport trips, when combined with trip rate units such as floor area. Multi-modal trip data has been collected for some time in the UK. The survey method developed in this research was simpler than the UK method by interviewing in only one direction for the vast majority of land uses, apart from residential where the recommended method was to interview in both directions. A face-to-face questionnaire method was developed over a series of different site surveys in Auckland, Wellington and Christchurch during 2010.

Research Report 061 Rolling resistance characteristics of New Zealand roads

Published: | Category: Activity management , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

New Zealand's road network uses pavement types of widely differing properties, ranging from very smooth asphaltic concrete to coarse chipseal surfaces having macrotexture levels not often found elsewhere in the world. A research programme was undertaken between 1988 and 1995 to investigate the effect of surface texture of a road on the rolling resistance of a typical tyre/car combination. Data available in the international literature was reviewed during 1994–95 following analysis of the New Zealand results. A comparison of the coastdown and steady state torque methods established that the latter was more suitable for measuring vehicle drag forces on public roads. Accordingly, it was used to obtain static and dynamic rolling resistance coefficients for 12 different road surfaces having approximately the same roughness, but with macrotexture depths which ranged from 0. 6 mm to 2. 7 mm.

Research report 505 Economic evaluation of the impact of safe speeds: literature review

Published: | Category: Safety, security and public health , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

The Safe System approach to road safety implies the goal of removing fatal and serious injury crashes from our road network. This review addresses:

alternative ways of classifying roads in relation to speed, across the road network, compatible with the Safe System approach
how speed relates to crashes, fuel consumption and emissions
the values currently placed on the costs of serious and fatal crashes, travel time and fuel savings in the developed world
how on a macroscopic scale these values can be translated into greenhouse gas emissions savings
how these values relate in the cost–benefit analysis context under a Safe System approach to speed. Well attested relationships were found between speed and crashes. Safe System road types related to the maximum speeds above which serious or fatal injury would occur in various types of crashes. Internationally, valuation of crashes is mainly based on willingness-to-pay criteria.

Research Report 503 A natural environment and cultural asset management system for New Zealands state highway network: towards a practical concept and application

Published: | Category: Environmental impacts of land transport , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

Internationally there is an increasing expectation for roadways to have a minimal environmental footprint, to express local environmental and cultural context, and to protect or respect natural, historical and landscape assets – in addition to being efficient and safe. New Zealand depends on the integrity of its clean green brand and the highways are the shop window of the nation and critical to the impression gained by overseas tourists and traders, but also to residents. Legibility of heritage is a sign of identity, protectiveness and cultural maturity. Key elements that should be revealed are geo-morphology, indigenous biota, Maori and colonial culture. This can be achieved through conservation, restoration and interpretation. Engagement with communities, iwi, engineers and ecologists is crucial, and culture change has to be championed at the highest level. Leadership must reinforce the latent interest in asserting an Aotearoa New Zealand identity.

Research Report 060 Assessing passing opportunities: literature review

Published: | Category: Integrated land use and transport systems , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

This literature review was undertaken in 1995 with two main objectives:

to develop a means of assessing the need for increased passing opportunity in the preliminary stages of a scheme evaluation
to evaluate the tools available to predict the effects of increased passing opportunities on highway operations. The report details the performance factors that should be considered in any assessment, summarises warrants used in other countries, and describes some tools used ot evaluate passing facilities. The report concludes that there is a need to research some performance measures for New Zealand that are related to driver perception of the highway, and that a computer-based simulation model such as TRARR or TWOPAS would be most appropriate for determining the benefits of passing opportunities. Keywords: Passing, overtaking, literature review

Research Report 573 The relationship between road lighting and night-time crashes in areas with speed limits between 80 and100km/h

Published: | Category: Publication Category , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: Road traffic engineers & consultants

This report describes a project to improve understanding of how road lighting quality influences night-time crashes in higher speed limit areas on the urban fringe. The work complements previous urban work by the same authors. In this new study traffic conditions and crash types are different, as are the expected relationships between lighting and crashes. The study featured a before and after study, generalised linear modelling, a relational study and a corridor study. It considered three road types: motorways, median divided highways and single carriageway roads. The study concluded that the largest lighting-related crash reductions occur for motorways, followed by divided highways and single carriageway roads, and are generally lower than reductions for urban roads. There was no evidence that lighting motorways (or divided highways) to levels above the current . 0. 75 cd/m2 design level improved safety.

Research Report 574 Geosynthetics in basecourse stablisation

Published: | Category: Activity management , Research programme , Research & reports | Audiences: Road controlling authorities, Road traffic engineers & consultants, Roading contractors

The application of geosynthetics (ie geogrids) for the stabilisation of basecourses prepared with a River Run rounded gravel aggregate was investigated. Reductions in the rate of rut formation by over 50% were observed when geogrids were included either at the basecourse/sub-base interface or at half-height of the basecourse. The rate of rut formation was reduced further if a square type geogrid was used in place of a triaxial type geogrid. It was found that the basecourse rutted rapidly if the surface was not confined, due to the lack of particle interlock and surface confining stress. If the surface was confined with a thin (ie < 40mm) asphalt layer to bind together the particles in the surface, then the aggregate provided significant support and reduced rutting by over 90%, even without the addition of geosynthetic stabilisation.

Research Report 621 Regulations and safety for electric bicycles and other low-powered vehicles

Published: | Category: Safety, security and public health , Research programme , Research & reports | Audiences: General, Motorists, Walkers & cyclists

This research report presents a review of overseas legislation, technology trends, market and safety analyses for low-powered, low-speed vehicles. These vehicles include electric bicycles, mobility scooters, self-balancing devices and other personal mobility or wheeled recreational devices. Current New Zealand LPV legislation is based only on motor power and how certain LPVs may be used. In all other countries reviewed, top motor-assisted speed is regulated. The report assesses various regulatory and non-regulatory options for improving safety while supporting technological innovation and mode choice options in New Zealand.